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Erzbischof

(265 words)

Author(s): Heinrich de Wall
Erzbischof - Katholisch → Sehe Metropolit Erzbischof - Evangelisch Die ev. Kirchen in Deutschland haben keine Metropolien im röm.-kath. Sinn ausgebildet. Bei ihnen existieren demgemäß auch Amt od. Titel eines E. nicht. Auch das Verhältnis zwischen den Landesbischöfen u. den Regional- od. Sprengelbischöfen (bzw. General- od. Landessuperintendenten, Pröpste od. Prälaten), wie es sie in zahlreichen dt. LK gibt, ist nicht m. dem des röm.-kath. E. zu seinen Suffraganbischöfen vergleichbar, da weder der Landes…

Bekleidung, religiöse

(724 words)

Author(s): Heinrich de Wall
Bekleidung, religiöse - Staatlich Das dt. Recht kennt keine allg. Bekleidungsregeln. Jedermann ist frei, sich so zu kleiden, wie er möchte, sei es aus religiösen od. aus anderen Gründen, sei es im privaten Bereich od. in der Öffentlichkeit. Allerdings gibt es durchaus Bekleidungsvorschriften od. -verbote in bes. Rechtsverhältnissen u. für bes. Situationen, auch Verbote religiöser B. So sind etwa in Folge der Kopftuchentscheidungen des BVerfG den öff. Dienst od. Teile davon betr. Verbote, religiöse B…

Clausula rebus sic stantibus

(286 words)

Author(s): Heinrich de Wall
Clausula rebus sic stantibus - Staatlich Die c. (lat., dt. etwa: (Vertrags)Bestimmung, dass die Umstände gleich bleiben) bez. den stillschweigenden Vorbehalt der Vertragsschließenden, dass der Fortbestand eines Vertrages unter der Bedingung gleichbleibender Umstände steht, u. zwar objektiver Umstände, die den Parteien selbst nicht bewusst sein müssen. Bei nachträglicher Änderung dieser Verhältnisse sollten sich die Parteien vom Vertrag lösen dürfen. Diese Ausnahme vom Grundsatz pacta sunt servanda war…

Königreich Dänemark, Staat und Religion

(974 words)

Author(s): Heinrich de Wall
Königreich Dänemark, Staat und Religion - Staatlich Das Verhältnis von Staat u. Religion in Dänemark ist einerseits geprägt durch die umfassende Religionsfreiheit, die durch das GG des Reiches Dänemark i. d. F. v. 1953 – die Verf. des Landes – u. durch Art. 9 EMRK (Europäische Menschenrechtskonvention) gewährleistet ist, andererseits insb. durch das in Dänemark bestehende System einer ev.-luth. Staatskirche. Diese wird in der Verf. als Volkskirche definiert (§ 4), womit das Selbstverständnis der dänisc…

Devotio Domestica

(336 words)

Author(s): Heinrich de Wall
Devotio Domestica - Historisch D. bez. die Hausandacht als eine Form der Religionsausübung nach frühneuzeitlichem Verständnis – neben dem exercitium publicum (öff. Religionsausübung) u. dem exercitium privatum religionis (private Religionsausübung). Die D., die sich auf den engen Kreis der Haushaltsangehörigen, d. h. Familienangehörige u. Hausgesinde, o. Beteiligung eines Geistlichen, beschränkte, wurde als individuelle Religionsausübung angesehen u. dem Bereich der Gewissensfreiheit zugeordnet. Dag…

Mayer, Otto

(171 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] (Mar 29, 1846, Fürth – Aug 8, 1924, Hilpertsau), professor of administrative and (Protestant) canon law in Strasbourg (from 1882) and Leipzig (from 1903). His most significant scholarly achievement is his Deutsches Verwaltungsrecht (German administrative law), in which, following the French model, he developed the concept and dogmatics of the administrative act. He thus laid the foundations of German administrative law. Mayer was active in numerous academic, state, and church functions. In his writings on church…

Bredt, Johann Viktor

(96 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] (Mar 2, 1879, Barmen – Dec 12, 1940, Marburg) was professor of state, administrative, international and church law in Marburg from 1910. He was a member of the Prussian parliament and Landtag. He was a member of the Reichstag from 1924 to 1932. He became justice minister in 1930. As one of the first comprehensive works on church law after the end of the Prince's summepiscopate, his three-volume New Protestant Church Law for Prussia (1921–1927) gained significance. Heinrich de Wall Bibliography K. Goebel, “Johann Viktor Bredt,” RhLB 5, 1973, 243–257.

Hübler, Bernhard

(179 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] (May 25, 1835, Cottbus – Apr 19, 1912, Berlin), professor of Protestant church law. At the University of Berlin, Hübler was appointed Privadozent in 1865 and associate professor in 1868; he was appointed professor at Freiburg in 1869. From 1880 to ¶ 1907 he taught as professor at Berlin. From 1870 to 1880 he served in the Prussian Kultusministerium, where he worked with A. Falk, the Prussian minister of ecclesiastical affairs and education, to draft legislation supporting the Kulturkampf . In 1879 he participated in the Prussian negotiations with the Holy Se…

Jacobson, Heinrich Friedrich

(110 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] Jun 8, 1804, Marienwerder – Mar 19, 1868, Königsberg [Kaliningrad]). Jacobson, of Jewish birth, was professor of both secular and ecclesiastical law at Königsberg from 1831 to his death. He wrote a treatise of Prussian law ( Der Preussische Staat, 1854), but his reputation rests primarily on his Das Evangelische Kirchenrecht des preussischen Staates und seiner Provinzen (2 vols., 1864–1866) and his unfinished Geschichte der Quellen des Kirchenrechts des Preussischen Staats (1837ff.). His works are characterized by positivistic legal particularism an…

School Legislation

(1,060 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] In the 18th century, the school system in Germany, previously treated as the domain of the church, gradually came under state control. The end of this process was marked by article 144 of the Weimar Constitution: the first clause of the first sentence placed all schooling under state supervision. This statement is repeated in Basic Law art. 7 §1. Originally this language barred all school supervision except that of the state, specifically precluding supervision by the church. Toda…

Pastoral Office

(399 words)

Author(s): Wall, Heinrich de
[German Version] In the broad sense, pastoral office is simply the ministry of a member of the clergy; in other words, an area of responsibility independent of its incumbent, defined for a particular, limited domain within the larger structure of the church and involving proclamation of God’s Word and administration of the sacraments. Usually this ministry is exercised within a defined body or territory such as a local church (Community) or parish. In recent decades, however, a substantial number …

Secular Supremacy

(504 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] Secular supremacy ( Kirchenhoheit) refers to the supervisory authority of the state over the churches, based on the sovereignty of the state; this authority was recognized in Germany well into the 20th century. It must be distinguished from Kirchenregiment, which meant not “external” supervision but rather the legally recognized authority of the sovereign within the church itself. The notion of a special authority of the sovereign state to supervise the church had its roots in the theory of territorialism. Both extern…

Corpus Christianum

(1,246 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] The term “corpus Christianum” refers to the medieval concept of a unity of church and “state,” of spiritual and secular dominion. According to it, sacerdotium and imperium, empire and papacy are two powers within a unified respublica Christiana encompassing all of Christianity, membership in which is mediated by baptism. The invisible, unifying head of this corpus mysticum is Jesus Christ; it is governed by emperor and pope as earthly heads. The unity of this corpus Christianum was an argument, in particular, for the curi…

Official Assistance

(172 words)

Author(s): Wall, Heinrich de
[German Version] is the support that one authority gives in individual cases to another at the latter’s request to enable it to perform its tasks, for example by granting sight of files, aid resources, etc. Official assistance given by a judicial act is called legal assistance. In Germany, according to article 35/I of the Basic Law, all federal and regional authorities are bound to give mutual legal and official assistance. However, this does not affect the churches unless they are exceptionally p…

Corpus Evangelicorum

(726 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] Association of the Protestant imperial estates in the old empire. The Corpus Evangelicorum was presupposed in the Peace of Westphalia in the constitution of the empire. Here, in fact, art. V §52 of the Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugense (IPO, Osnabrück Peace Treaty) specifies that, in certain cases, the Imperial Diet will not decide by majority but only by amicable consensus ( amicabilis compositio) between the (Catholic and Protestant) estates of the empire. These cases include questions of religion and cases in which the two confessions separate “in duas partes” ( itio…

Seal of the Confessional

(348 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] Confession of specific sins in the confessional presupposes trust in the discretion of the confessor. Therefore silence must be preserved with respect to everything that takes place during confession. The seal of the confessional is an element of pastoral confidentiality in general. It includes everything communicated to a member of the clergy in his or her role as a pastor, even outside the confessional. On the other hand, professional confidentiality protects all other privilege…

Caesaropapism

(264 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] denotes a combined secular and ecclesiastical government in which the secular ruler, who enjoys a special religious status, exercises authority over the church even in spiritual and internal affairs. Since J.H. Böhmer at the beginning of the 18th century, the term has been applied particularly to the ecclesiastical authority of the emperors from Constantine the Great until the Investiture Controversy, above all for the system in the Eastern Roman…

Ecclesiastical Power

(498 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] The concept of “ecclesiastical power” is not very common in the newer doctrine of Protestant canon law; however, in Roman Catholicism, the authority of the Church and related concepts ( sacra potestas, potestas ecclesiastica, potestas ordinis, and potestas jurisdictionis) are the foundation of the Church's legal ¶ structure. Nevertheless, the justification for and the scope of the authority of the Church were among the most important controversial issues of the Reformation ( CA 28). In Protestantism, the concept of the power of …

Evangelical

(354 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] In its broadest sense, evangelical means “according or pertaining to the gospel.” Beyond that meaning, by the Middle Ages it had already been used in ¶ criticism of the church to describe a way of life thought to be particularly close to the teaching of the gospel. This meaning was preserved in the expression evangelical counsels (Counsels of perfection). In the Reformation period, evangelical was used to characterize the teaching of the Reformers, implying that this teaching, unlike that of the (Roman) …

Freedom of Belief

(1,634 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] I. History – II. Freedom of Belief – III. Freedom of Conscience Besides legal questions, freedom of belief and freedom of conscience touch on fundamental philosophical and theological problems (Human rights). Article 4, §1 of the German Basic Law ( Grundgesetz) guarantees that freedom of belief, of conscience, and of religious and ideological confession are inviolable on the part of the state. Freedom of belief and confession, as freedom of religion and ideology, must be distinguished from freedom of conscience. I. History Historically, however, freedom of b…
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