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Germany

(4,881 words)

Author(s): Mühlhahn, Klaus | Leutner, Mechthild | Trampedach, Tim
1. 1860-1918 During the "long" 19th century until World War I, the structures and changes in international politics largely shaped the German-Chinese relations. The rivalry between the European colonial powers and China's increasing loss of territorial and economic self-determination were the dominant factors. Although German missionaries and merchants occasionally came in contact with China since the 17th century (Christianity), German countries established formal relations with China only at a relatively late date in comparison to other European states. The Prussian East Asia expedition (1860-62) headed by Fritz Graf zu Eulenburg marks the beginning of the diplomatic relations. Prussia, representing the states belonging to the German Customs Union (