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Dustūr

(44,090 words)

Author(s): Réd. | Lewis, B. | Khadduri, M. | Lambton, A. K. S. | Caldwell, J. A. M. | Et al.
désigne, en arabe moderne, une Constitution. Ce terme d’origine persane semble avoir désigné à l’origine une personne exerçant une autorité, religieuse ou politique, avant d’être spécialement appliqué aux membres du clergé zoroastrien. Il apparaît dans Kalīla wa-Dimna avec le sens de «conseiller» et reparaît avec la même acception, à une date bien postérieure, dans l’expression Dustūr-i mükerrem, l’un des titres honorifiques du grand-vizir de l’empire ottoman. Plus communément, dustūr était employé avec le sens de «règle» ou «règlement» et désignait en particuli…

Ḏj̲arīda

(16,453 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Pellat, Ch. | Ed. | P. M. Holt | K. Hitti, Philip | Et al.
, literally “leaf”, which has become the usual term in modern Arabic for a newspaper, its adoption being attributed to Fāris al-S̲h̲idyāḳ [ q.v.]. Its synonym ṣaḥīfa is less used in the sing., but the plural ṣuḥuf is more common than d̲j̲arāʾid . Some interest in the European press was shown by the Ottomans as early as the 18th century and, it would seem, excerpts from European newspapers were translated for the information of the dīwān (Prussian despatch from Constantinople, of 1780, cited by J. W. Zinkeisen, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches , vi, Gotha 1859, …

Baladiyya

(9,924 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Hill, R.L. | Samaran, Ch. | Adam, A. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Et al.
, municipality, the term used in Turkish ( belediye ), Arabic, and other Islamic languages, to denote modern municipal institutions of European type, as against earlier Islamic forms of urban organisation [see madīna ]. The term, like so many modern Islamic neologisms and the innovations they express, first appeared in Turkey, where Western-style municipal institutions and services were introduced as part of the general reform programme of the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.]. (1) turkey. The first approaches towards modern municipal administration seems to have been made by Sultan …

Dustūr

(44,385 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Lewis, B. | Khadduri, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Caldwell, J.A.M. | Et al.
, in modern Arabic constitution. A word of Persian origin, it seems originally to have meant a person exercising authority, whether religious or political, and was later specialized to designate members of the Zoroastrian priesthood. It occurs in Kalīla wa-Dimna in the sense of “counsellor”, and recurs with the same sense, at a much later date, in the phrase Dustūr-i mükerrem , one of the honorific titles of the Grand Vizier in the Ottoman Empire. More commonly, dustūr was used in the sense of “rule” or “regulation”, and in particular the code of ru…

Ḥukūma

(18,623 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Ahmad, F. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Vatikiotis, P.J. | Tourneau, R. le | Et al.
, in modern Arabic “government”. Like many political neologisms in Islamic languages, the word seems to have been first used in its modern sense in 19th century Turkey, and to have passed from Turkish into Arabic and other languages. Ḥukūma comes from the Arabic root ḥ.k.m , with the meaning “to judge, adjudicate” (cf. the related meaning, dominant in Hebrew and other Semitic languages, of wisdom. See ḥikma ). In classical usage the verbal noun ḥukūma means the act or office of adjudication, of dispensing justice, whether by a sovereign, a judge, …

Baladiyya

(10,069 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Hill, R. L. | Samaran, Ch. | Adam, A. | Lambton, A. K. S. | Et al.
, municipalité, terme utilisé en turc ( belediye), et d’autres langues islamiques, pour désigner les institutions municipales modernes de type européen, par opposition aux anciennes formes musulmanes d’organisation urbaine (voir Madīna). Le terme, comme beaucoup de néologismes de l’Islam moderne et comme les innovations qu’ils expriment, apparut d’abord en Turquie; les institutions et les services de type occidental furent introduits dans ce pays dans le cadre du programme général de réforme des Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.]. I. — Turquie. Les premiers pas vers une administration muni…

Ḏj̲arīda

(16,265 words)

Author(s): B. Lewis et Ch. Pellat | Réd. | P. M. Holt | Réd | Ph. K. Hitti | Et al.
, littéralement «feuille», terme dont l’adoption est attribuée à Fāris al-S̲h̲idyāḳ [ q.v.], et qui est devenu usuel en arabe moderne pour désigner un journal. Son synonyme, ṣaḥīfa, est moins employé au sing., mais le pluriel ṣuḥuf est plus fréquent que d̲j̲arāʾid. Dès le XVIIIe s., les Ottomans manifestèrent quelque intérêt pour la presse européenne, et il semble bien que des extraits de journaux d’Europe aient été traduits pour l’information du dīwān (dépêche prussienne de Constantinople (1780), citée par J. W. Zinkeisen, Gesch. des osm. Reiches, VI, Gotha 1859, 290-1); cet em…
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