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Pareto, Vilfredo Federico Damaso

(291 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] ( Jul 15, 1848, Paris – Aug 19, 1923, Céligny near Geneva), economist and sociologist, son of a French mother and an Italian father. Pareto had a brilliant understanding of how to bring sociological insights into economics, and ideas from economics into sociology, and how to apply notions from each within the other discipline. In addition, following L. Walras, he further develope…

Game Theory

(592 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] The subject of game theory is the formally exact analysis of situations of interactive strategic decisions. Characteristic properties of modes of strategic behavior are typically conflicts of interest and/or problems of coordination between the players. For the economy, game theory is an indispensable tool because …

Climate Change

(765 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] In comparison with the pre-industrial world in the middle of the 18th century, the con¶ centration of greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere has increased greatly. As a result, some of the earth's heat radiation can no longer escape into space; instead – as in a greenhouse – it is reflected back to earth, leading to an increase in the mean temperature of the earth's surface. The most important greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2), which is produced primarily by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas. Other major greenhouse g…

Interest

(3,846 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Stefan | Bayer, Stefan | Schneider, Helmuth | Kessler, Rainer | Strohm, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Legal Aspects – III. Economics – IV. Non-Christian Antiquity – V. Bible – VI. Christianity – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. Concept Interest is payment in exchange for a right of use or exploitation, typically on a temporary basis and always agreed for a fixed period of time. Money later gained increasing importance as an object of lending and now occupies a dominant position, although other items or rights remain possible as objects of lending, as for example rent.…

Consumer

(349 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan

Shadow Economy

(330 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] In principle goods and services are provided, paid for, and cleared in markets (Market/Markets) according to prevailing rules. In recent years, however, goods and services provided in the shadow of the legal markets have played an increasingly important role. According to one current definition, the shadow economy comprises all those activities that create value in terms of the national accounts but are not (or only partly) reported in the official statistics. In particular, neith…

Schmoller, Gustav (von)

(281 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] (Jun 14, 1838, Heilbronn – Jun 27, 1917, Harzburg), economist. Schmoller taught at Halle (1864–1872), Straßburg (Strasbourg; 1872–1882), and Berlin (1882–1913). He engaged in basic interdisciplinary research, analyzing relationships between economics (Economy) and the related social sciences and integrating them into economics. Methodologically he derived many of his assertions inductively from observations of the past. He emphasized that abstractly axiomatic formalizations of hum…

Consumption

(352 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] Income is consumed by individuals, saved, or paid in taxes. The state also spends a port…

Sustainability

(258 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] in general means permanence or durability. In an environmental context (Environment/Ecology), the terms sustainability and sustainable development are generally used synonymously, although different meanings lie below the surface: sustainability characterizes a present state (static population size), whereas sustainable development refers to a process …

Income

(341 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] originates in two ways in the process of production. Producers obtain income through the sale of goods and services at market prices. Households earn income through the application of the factors of production, labor, capital, and property. The sum of all income produced in a period comprises…

Retirement

(362 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] is the period of time that individuals can spend as pensioners after their active participation in gainful work. Economically, retirement can be viewed from two perspectives. On the one hand, it rep…

Walras, Marie-Esprit-Léon

(377 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1834, Evreux, Normandy – Jan 5, 1910, Clarens, Canton of Vaud), French economist. Walras was born the son of Antoine August Walras, a teacher and amateur economist, and L…

Credit

(391 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] A credit establishes an in personam relationship between a credit-giver (creditor) and a credit-receiver (debtor). The creditor lends the debtor an amount of money fixed by contract. In return, the debtor takes on the obligation to repay the entire amount to the creditor at the end of the term of the credit. As a fee for the credit, a specified interest rate (Interest) is agreed upon which the debtor must pay the creditor within a defined period for t…

Social Reform

(347 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] By social reform, we mean the reform of the existing social security system in general. The need for such a reform in the Federal Republic of Germany is clear for several reasons. Expenditures related to social policy, more than half of all government spending, consumes the lion’s share of all public spending. In the year 2000, the statutory social security system alone cost 416 billion euros. At present the total “social budget,” which includes government spending ¶ occasioned by distributional policy (such as social welfare and unemployment assistance), …

Profit, Corporate

(269 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] is determined in business economics by the excess of returns over a period of time, after deduction of costs incurred during the same period by the business in pursuit of profit (Corporation, Economy). Profit is the …

Multinational Corporations

(351 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] are autonomous decision-making and trading entities in the economy that bring together several legally independent and dependent corporations and businesses at home and abroad. Such concerns are founded, for example, on the basis of a large share of capital, on voting rights, on personal union in the administration or the board of directors. In a merger, by contrast, the uniting corporations and businesses lose their economic independence. The following reasons for the creation of multinational corporations may be listed: economic (such as benefi…