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Quistorp

(489 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] 1. Johann, the Elder (Aug 18, 1587, Rostock – May 2, 1648, Doberan), son of a Rostock tawer and founder of a Mecklenburg scholarly dynasty whose influence lasted into the second half of the 18th century. After schooling in Rostock (Nathan Chytraeus; P. Tarnow) and Berlin, he began his studies in 1603 in Frankfurt an der Oder but returned to Rostock in 1604 (M.A. 1613). In 1615 he took over one of the municipal chairs of theology at the University of Rostock; in 1616 he was also app…

Brès, Guido de

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Guy de Brès/de Bray; 1522, Bergen/Mons – May 31, 1567, Valenciennes) was the definitive reformer of the southern Low Countries. Under unknown circumstances, the learned glass painter was won to the Reformation cause in the 1540s. In 1548 he fled into exile in London for religious reasons; he returned in 1552 to preach in Rijssel/Lille. He use…

Dathenus, Petrus

(274 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (1531/1532, Cassel near Hazebrouck, Flanders (now France) – Mar 17, 1588, Elbląg [Elbing], Poland) joined the Reformation as a young Carmelite monk (Ypres) and fled to England in 1550. In 1555, he became the leader of the Dutch exile community in Frankfurt am Main. After the eucharistic controversy between Calvin and J. Westphal, Dathenus and some 60 families took refuge in the monastery of ¶ Frankenthal. He moved to the Netherlands in 1566, but fled once again to the Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz) in 1567 …

Crypto-Calvinists

(352 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] is the name that was once given to those persons who originated from or were active in the areas dominated by the Lutheran confession and who, according to the judgment of confessionally Lutheran theologians of the late 16th century, advocated doctrinal views or practical approaches that were intented to undermine the status of the Lutheran denomination by secretly bringing it closer to Reformed or Calvinist positions. In scholarly publications, …

Dort, Synod of

(782 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] The General Synod of the Reformed Congregations of the Netherlands, meeting between Nov 1618 and May 1619 in Dort (Dordrecht) for the first time since 1586 (The Hague) ended theological and church-political disputes that had erupted in the 1580s. These disputes were centered on the doctrine of predestination, the binding force of the doctrinal confessions, and th…

Office

(9,171 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Rüterswörden, Udo | Burtchaell, James Tunstead | Lips, Hermann von | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Law – IX. Missiology I. Religious Studies Over the course of history, the word office has been used for a wide variety of functions. In every case, however, what is peculiar to the term is that it refers to an activity independent of the unique personal characteristics of the officeholder. In the context of religious studies, what first comes to mind is the office…

Dreier, Christian

(207 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Dec 22, 1610, Stettin – Aug 3, 1688, Königsberg) studied in Jena, Wittenberg, Rostock, and Copenhagen. From 1638, he taught in the faculty of philosophy at the University of Königsberg; in 1644, Dreier, who enjoyed the special favor of the Prince Elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William I, was called, despite the objection of professors of theology Johannes Behm and C. …

Dorsche, Johann Georg

(241 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Dorsch, Dorsch[a]eus; Nov 13, 1597, Straßburg – Dec 25, 1659, Rostock) received the M.A. in 1617 after attending the Gymnasium illustre in his home city; he studied theology (1619–1621) in Rinteln and Tübingen. In 1622, Dorsche assumed a pastorate in Ensisheim near Straßburg. After receiving his doctorate from Straßburg, he assumed a dual office as cathedral pre…

Confessional Age

(424 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] In its original usage by E. Troeltsch the term “confessional age” designated the 16th and 17th-century period of European history, distinct from the Middle Ages and the modern era, in which the “power of ecclesial culture,” in principle broken by Protestantism or the Reformation, continued to shape culture and society in the form of three “mutually exclusive and restrictive infallible churchdoms” ( HZ 1906, 29; 1911, 46); in the process of the “relative pulverization” ( ibid.) of the three confessions, the “modern world” arose. The concept of the …

Arminius, Jacobus

(343 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Jacob Hermansz/Harmensen/ Hermanszoon; Oct 10, 1560, Oudewater aan de IJssel, Holland – Oct 19, 1609, Leiden). The significance of Arminius lies especially in his denial of the doctrine of supralapsarian predestination (Infralapsarianism) of nascent orthodox Calvinism, which had become systematized as a specific point of doctrine in confessio…

Bogerman, Johannes

(162 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (1576, Uplewert, East Frisia– Sep 11, 1637, Franeker). The son of a pastor, Bogerman was a vigorous exponent of Reformed orthodoxy in the Netherlands. After studying at major centers with important teachers of orthodox Reformed theology (Franeker [1591], Heidelberg [1596: D. Pareus, D. Toussain], Geneva [T. Beza…

Gustav II Adolf

(813 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Dec 19, 1594, Stockholm – Oct 16 [Old Style Oct 6], 1632, battlefield near Lützen), king of Sweden (1611; coronation 1617), was the son of the imperial administrator (1593) and the king of Sweden (Karl IX, 1587 and 611), Duke Karl of Södermannland and Princess Christine of Holstein-Gottorp. Sweden's rise over the course of a century to become one of Europe's leading Protestant powers is linked to the reign of the brilliant military leader and political strategist, Gustav II Adolf…

König, Johann Friedrich

(329 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Oct 16, 1619, Dresden – Sep 15, 1664, Rostock). After studying philosophy and theology in Leipzig (M.A.,1639) and Wittenberg (1644; adjunct to the faculty of philosophy), König entered Swedish service in 1649 as the court chaplain of Count Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie. König was appointed assistant professor of theology in Greifswald in 1651. In 1656, he accepted a call from the duke of Mecklenburg, Adolf Friedrich, to be superintendent of Mecklenburg and Ratzeburg. In 1663, he al…

Counter-Reformation

(3,371 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Political and Legal Aspects; Spread – III. Characteristics I. Terminology The term was originally used mostly in the plural to denote individual legal and political measures taken against the Protestants by Roman Catholic rulers on the basis of the ius reformandi . In the singular, as Gegenreformation (cf. Fr. contreréforme, Ital. controriforma) in L. v. Ranke's Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation (1839–1847), it underwent a major historiographical transformation, becoming the designation of the perio…

Arminians

(2,586 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas | Bangs, Carl
[German Version] I. Origins and Spread – II. Great Britain – III. North America I. Origins and Dissemination The public criticism of the Calvinist doctrine of predestination by J. Arminius was increasingly associated after his death (1609) with church-political and general political motives and opened up a dynamic which created a deep split in the Reformed churches of the Dutch General States for ar…

Ames, William

(222 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Amesius, Guilelmus; 1576, Ipswich, Suffolk – 1633, Rotterdam), the most important single theological figure for the early connection of English Puritanism and the Dutch “Nadere Reformatie”. In Cambridge Ames became familiar, through W. Perkins, with deeply puritanical appropriation of the theology of Calvin. After a …

Königsberg, University

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] Founded by Duke Albert of Prussia (the elder) on Oct 24, 1541 and opened on Aug 17, 1544, with four faculties and eleven chairs, the University of Königsberg followed Marburg (1527) as the second newly founded university in the century of the Reformation. As the most easterly German Protestant university before the founding of Dorpat (1632; Tartu), Königsberg fulfilled a central cultural mediating function for Poland and the Baltics. Experts from the University of Königsberg were …

Hauck, Albert

(358 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Dec 9, 1845, Wassertrüdingen, – Apr 7, 1918, Leipzig), the most important Protestant church historian of Wilhelmine Germany besides A. v. Harnack, studied Protestant theology in Erlangen and Berlin. He experienced formative impulses of Erlangen Lutheranism from J.C. von Hofmann and Gustav Leopold Plitt, and, in the spirit of historicism, from L. v. Ranke. Having passed the qualifying exam for theology in Bavaria (1868), Hauck entered into church service. On the basis of a monogra…

Voetius, Gisbert

(386 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1589, Heusden, Holland –Nov 1, 1676, Utrecht). Born to a noble family impoverished by war, Voetius began to study theology at Leiden in 1604; as a student of F. Gomarus, he was deeply involved in the debates between the Remonstrants (Arminians) and Contraremonstrants. In 1611 he was appointed pastor in Vlijmen, in 1617 in Heusden, his home town, and in 1629 in ’s-Hertogenbosch. In 1618/1619 he took part in the Synod of Dort, agreeing with the Contraremonstrants’ doctrine o…

Krakevitz, Albrecht Joachim von

(255 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] (May 28, 1674, Gevezin near New Brandenburg – May 2, 1732, Greifswald). After studying in Rostock, Copenhagen, and Leipzig, Krakevitz was appointed professor of Near Eastern languages and professor of catechetics in Rostock in 1699. From 1713 onward, as professor of theology, councilor of the consistory, and superintendent of ¶ the Mecklenburg district, Krakevitz became one of the most important representatives of late Rostock orthodoxy (II, 2) together with J. Fecht, J. Quistorp, and Zacharias Grapius (1671–1713). Appointed gene…
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