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Tribes of Israel

(2,334 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
1. History and Results of Research From Numbers to 1 Kgs. 11:30, Israel is portrayed as a community of 12 tribes. Discrepancies in the lists (either with Levi and Joseph, the sons of Jacob, or without Levi and with Ephraim and Manasseh, the grandchildren of Jacob), as well as an older system of 10 tribes of Israel (Judges 5 [without Judah, Simeon, Gad, and Manasseh, but with Machir and Gilead]; 1 Kgs. 11:31) plus Judah (1 Kgs. 11:32), show the 12-tribe system to be a recent, theoretical construct (see 4). In their material culture and linguistically, the tribes of the 12…

Timna

(112 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] (hebr. תִּמְנָע; Wādī ‘Araba), hebr. Name (nach der Mutter Amaleks, Gen 36,12.23.40) für das Kupferminengebiet von el-Meneʿiyye in der südöstlichen ‘Araba (äg. ʿAtika), in das Ägypten im 13./12. und in der 2. Hälfte des 10.Jh. v.Chr. Bergbauexpeditionen entsandte, die mit Hilfe nordwestarab. und südpaläst. Spezialisten Kupfererz abbauten und an Ort und Stelle verhütteten, wohl auch Kupfer aus dem nordöstlich gelegenen, weit reicheren Vorkommen von Punon/Fēnān einhandelten. Ein äg. …

Penuel

(264 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] , hebr. פְּנוּאֵל, »Antlitz Els« (wohl nach einer Geländeformation); Ort im nördlichen Ostjordanland, nach Gen 32,22–32 an einer Jabbok-Furt, nach Ri 8,5–11 zw. Sukkot (Tell Dēr ʿAllā) und Jogbeha (Gˇubēḥa) und nach Ri 8,16 von Gideon teilweise zerstört (sekundärer Nachtrag zur Sukkot-Episode), im letzten Drittel des 10.Jh. v.Chr. von Schoschenk (Schischak) erobert (oder tributpflichtig gemacht) unter dem Namen »Neu-Pnuel« (pnwʾl ḥdsˇt; Karnak-Liste [Hughes, Pl. 2–9] Nr. 53f., u…

Weihrauchstraße

(272 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] Weihrauchstraße, Karawanenweg vom Weihrauchgewinnungsgebiet in Südostarabien (Ḥadramaut, Oman) durch Westarabien nach Gaza (Plinius d. Ä., Naturalis historia, VII 64). Als Luxusgut, das geringes Volumen mit hohem Wert vereint, ist Weihrauch ein typisches Fernhandelsgut der Antike. Im Gegenzug führte der Zufluß von Kapital und Herrschaftswissen aus dem Fruchtbaren Halbmond nach Arabien zu sekundären Stammes- und Staatenbildungen (formative Phase Sabas [Sabäer] etwa 750–675 v.Chr.…

Siloah-Inschrift

(265 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] Siloah-Inschrift, eine i.J. 1880 im Siloah-Tunnel (auch Hiskiatunnel genannt) entdeckte judäische Inschrift, die dessen Bau beschreibt, der die Gihon-Quelle (östlich des Sporns der sog. Davidstadt; Jerusalem [: VIII., 2.]; s. dort Karten zum Verlauf) mit dem Siloah-Teich südwestlich desselben verbindet (jetzt im Antikenmuseum Istanbul). Gegen die übliche Verbindung mit den Verteidigungsmaßnahmen Hiskias 701 v.Chr. (vgl.2Kön 20,20) erheben sich wasserbautechnische, stadtplanerisch…

Via Maris

(84 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] . Nach der Vulgata (Jes 9,1 [8,23 MT]; Mt 4,15; hebr. dæræk jām) Bez. des paläst. Abschnitts der Hauptverbindung zw. Ägypten und Syrien/ Mesopotamien, die bis zum Karmel der Mittelmeerküste folgt, bei Megiddo in die Jesreel-Ebene eintritt, Galiläa durchquert und bei Gˇisr Banāt Yaʿqūb/Gešer Běnōt Ya‘ăqōb (d.h. auf der Höhe von Hazor) den Jordan überschreitet, um über den Golan Damaskus zu erreichen. Ernst Axel Knauf Bibliography D.A. Dorsey. The Roads and Highways of Ancient Israel, 1991.

Thirza

(225 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] (hebr. תִּרְצָה; Tell el-Fāriʿa), Ort im nordöstlichen Samaria, kontrolliert die Hauptverbindung ins mittlere Ostjordanland (Penuel). Von Schoschenk (Schischak) erobert (Karnak-Liste Nr. 59 [G. Hughes, Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak, Bd.3, 1954]), von Baesa (1Kön 15,21) bis Omri (1Kön 16,23) Residenz der Könige von Israel; von Menahem, also schon vor Tiglat Pileser III., zerstört (2Kön 15,16). In Hhld 6,4 könnte Th. Deckname für Samaria sein. – Ein bedeutender Ort der FB-I/II-Z…

Stämme Israels

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] . Das bibl. Israel (: II.,1.) gliedert sich theoretisch in zwölf S. (vgl. auch Apk 7,4–8). Älteste Aufzählungen nennen weniger S. (2Sam 2,9 vier, Ri 5 zehn), enthalten dafür »unkanonische« Stämmenamen (Machir, Gilead). I.Stamm und Staat. S. sind polit. Zusammenschlüsse von Sippen, die ihrerseits territorial definierte Endogamiegemeinschaften einer ganz oder überwiegend bäuerlichen Bevölkerung darstellen (und siedlungsarchäologisch nachweisbar sind; Lehmann). Herrschaftsform im S. ist das »Häuptlingstum« (hebr.…

Mediterranean

(578 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] Syria and Palestine were part of a supraregional Mediterranean economic system (see also Trade and traffic in the Mediterranean world) from the second millennium bce to the 16th century ce. During this period, the economic and cultural center of what may be termed the “First World” of the time was initially concentrated in the eastern Mediterranean, only to encompass the entire Mediterranean from the first millennium bce onward. Even the non-seafaring adjoining states and cultures integrated themselves in the basic structure of agrarian, tribal …

Milestone

(199 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] Roman roads were provided with milestones every 1,000 double paces (Lat. milia passuum, hence “mile”), which not only served as landmarks but might also include the name and position of the person responsible for building it, its date of construction, and the distance to the destination. Multiple renovations resulted in groups of milestones. Alongside ancient maps, these milestones provide evidence for the existence and routes of Roman roads; they are a primary source for the administrative and economic history of ¶ the Roman provinces, their trade and traffic…

Fortresses

(351 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] The refuges of tribal societies were often, as in Edom, natural, inaccessible rock formations such as Sela/as-Silʿ; even 11th- and 10th-century sites known as “fortresses” in the Negev actually represent fortified farmsteads of a local population that was not yet fully sedentary. Apart from such structures, military architecture associated with a centralized state could serve both defensive (final line of resistance against invaders) and offensive purposes (operational and reinforcement bases for an army in the field). Mature cities as such were ¶ often fortifi…

Tyre

(340 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] (in Phoenicia); Hebrew רוֹצ/ ṣôr, Phoenician/Akkadian ṣurru, “rock”; modern Ṣūr. Tyre was an island city off the coast of Lebanon with a maximum area of 50 to 60 ha and a population of 12,000–15,000 (swollen to about 50,000 by refugees in 332 bce); it was associated with the mainland settlement of Ushu/Palaityros. Settlement began in the second half of the 3rd millennium bce, with the colonial expansion of Egypt into the Lebanon (Hdt. II 44); it is mentioned throughout the 2nd millennium as a subject territory within the Egyptian sphere of …

Miriam

(313 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] מִריָם ( miryām, “the well-nourished one”), alternatively identified as the sister of Aaron (Exod 15:20) or the sister of Moses and Aaron (Num 26:59; 1 Chr 5:29). If it was not Miriam who sang (or composed) the song of triumph in Exod 15:21 (often, and probably correctly, considered one of the earliest of Israel's traditions), her traditio-historical roots are totally obscure. Exod 15 in its final form reacted to the scandal of a prominent female voice from Israel's distant past by …

Peniel

(313 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] Peniel, Heb. פְּנוּאֵל/ pĕnûʾ ēl, “face of El” (probably from a landform). Peniel (or Penuel) was a site in northern Transjordan, according to Gen 32:22–32 at a ford of the Jabbok, according to Judg 8:5–11 between Succoth (Deir ʿAllā) and Jogbehah (Ǧubēḥa), and according to Judg 8:16 partially destroyed by Gideon (secondary addition to the Succoth episode); in the last third of the 10th century bce, it was taken (or made to pay tribute) by Pharaoh Shishak (Sheshonk) under the name New Pnuel ( pnwʾ l ḥdšt; Karnak king list [Hughes, plates 2–9] nos. 53f., immediate…

Ophrah (in Benjamin)

(191 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] (עָפְרָה; cf. for the meaning of the name ʿ āpār, “dust,” or more probably ‘ oper, “young deer, gazelle kid”), mentioned in Josh 18:23 in the list of places belonging to Benjamin. However, Ophrah lies beyond the northern frontier of Benjamin ( Josh 18:12f.) and has probably entered the place list from 2 Chr 13:19 (ʿ eprōn), plausibly identified with eṭ-Ṭayyibe (eudemonism because of the echo of the Canaanite Ephron with Arab. ʿ ifrīt, “goblin”), and matching details given by Jerome (5 Roman miles north of Bethel); probably to be identified with Aph…

Cult Sites (in Palestine)

(502 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] In addition to the temple in Palestine and northern Arabia, there were open-air sanctuaries, demarcated sites whose inventory regularly included an asherah , a holy tree, and a massebah, a holy stone, at least since the late Neolithic era. As its Old Testament designation, asherah, indicates, the tree represents the goddess, while the massebah was considered the locus of the presence of the god (thus Beth-El, Bethyl [Bethel]; cf. Gen 28:18–19a). Masseboth/bethyls could be left in their natural state, decorated with reliefs, sculpted geometrica…

Tirzah

(273 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] (Heb. תִּרְצָה; Tell el-Fāriʿa). This site in northeastern Samaria controlled the main route into central Transjordania (Peniel). Taken by Shoshenq (Shishak; Karnak list no. 59 [G. Hughes, Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak, vol. III, 1954]), it was the ¶ residence of the kings of Israel from Baasha (1 Kgs 15:21) to Omri (1 Kgs 16:23). It was destroyed by Menahem even before Tiglath Pileser III (2 Kgs 15:16). In Song 6:4, Tirzah might be a cover name for Samaria. Tirzah was a significant settlement in Early Bronze I/II (18 hectares) and was fortified in Midd…

Moab

(964 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] (מֹאָב /mōʾāb, cf. Arab. waʾ ba, “rock cleft containing water”), primarily a toponym denoting the region on both sides of the Arnon (Israel and its neighbors in Syria-Palestine, map). The plateau produces a surplus of grain (cf. Ruth 1), the slopes of the hills a surplus of wine (cf. Isa 16:7–11; Jer 48:29–33), and the edges of the steppe a surplus of animal products (cf. 2 Kgs 3:4), but this economic potential is impeded by a geographic location that makes commerce difficult. There is evidence of several complex chiefdoms in southern Moab in the 3rd millennium bce. In the (…

Timnah (Wādī ʿAraba)

(134 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] (Heb. תִּמְנָע), Hebrew name (after the mother of Amalek in Gen 36:12, 23, 40) for the copper-producing area of el-Meneʿiyye in the southeastern ʿAraba (Egyp. ʿAtika), to which Egypt dispatched mining expeditions in the 13th/12th centuries and the second half of the 10th century; with the help of specialists from northwestern ʿArabia and southern Palestine, they mined copper ore and smelted it in situ; they probably also traded in copper from the far richer deposits at Punon/Fēnān to the northeast. A tented Egyptian shrine of Hathor was used at the same time or reused ¶ som…

Kenites

(243 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] A tribe of the 11th and 10th centuries bce that later assimilated into the tribe of Judah (Tribes of Israel). The area in which it settled (Judg 1:16f.; 1 Sam 30:29) and which it patrolled (1 Sam 27:10) lay south of the Judean hills. A Kenite clan is also attested in the plain of Jezreel during the same period (Judg 5:24; 4:11, 17). The name is derived more convincingly from “smith” in Aramaic (see Gen 4:22) than from “spear” in Hebrew. The geographical disparity of these references eithe…
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