Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Kober, Michael" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Kober, Michael" )' returned 12 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Contradiction, Logical

(281 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael
[German Version] A necessarily false set of statements contains a logical contradiction (Antinomy). Logical calculuses and theories should generally be free of contradiction (consistent) since, according to traditional logic all kinds of arbitrary conclusions can proceed from a falsehood ( ex falso quodlibet). Aristotle ( Metaph. Γ 1005 b 17–34) formulated the “principle of contradiction (to be excluded)” (which can be interpreted logically, psychologically and ontologically in his thinking) as a fundamental principle of …

Speech Act

(540 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael
[German Version] Philosophers of language traditionally reflect on the relationship between language and reality along with the truth or falsity of utterances and propositions. Despite some intimations in the work of earlier authors, especially G. Frege (“Der Gedanke,” 1918) and Adolf Reinach (“Die apriorischen Grund­lagen des bürgerlichen Rechts,” 1913), it remained for L. Wittgenstein ( Philosophische Untersuchungen, 1953; ET: Philosophical Investigations, 2001 [bilingual]) and John Langshaw Austin ( How To Do Things with Words, 1962) to formulate the insight that …

Russell, Bertrand Arthur William

(386 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael
[German Version] (May 18, 1872, Ravenscroft, Monmouthshire – Feb 2, 1970, Plas Penrhyn, Wales), philosopher and political activist, visiting professor in China, Australia, the United States, and Europe, married four times, awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. Russell studied mathematics and philosophy at Cambridge; after 1900 he concentrated …

Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johann

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael
[German Version] (Apr 26, 1889, Vienna – Apr 29, 1951, Cambridge) I. Life Wittgenstein grew up in one of the wealthiest and most cultured families of Austria. After studying engineering in Berlin and Manchester, he studied philosophy with B. Russell and G.E. Moore at Cambridge. His first major work, the Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung, known under the title of its English translation, Tractatus logico-philosophicus ( TLP), made him one of the most innovative and influential philosophers of the 20th century. Published in 1921, it was written during a perio…

Ryle, Gilbert

(167 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1900, Brighton – Oct 6, 1976, Oxford), philosopher. Ryle taught philosophy at Oxford; together with John L. Austin and L. Wittgenstein, in the mid-20th century he was the most influential exponent of ordinary language philosophy, which maintains that philosophical problems are an expression of linguistic confusions that can be resolved through precise analysis of how the words in question are used in ordinary language. In

Positivism

(1,549 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael
[German Version] I. General Positivism is an umbrella term for a number of concepts that vary greatly in their specifics and are no longer compatible with each other, notably in epistemology and theory of science, as well as in the philosophy of social science. A definition of Positivism is therefore not possible. However, proponents of Positivism in general share the conviction that all rational knowledge that is relevant to human action (in the form of judgments or assertions) should be intersubj…

Vienna Circle

(227 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael
[German Version] self-designation of a group of philosophers (Moritz Schlick, R. Carnap), mathemati-…

Doubt,

(549 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael
[German Version] a condition of objection, dismissal, caution or indecisiveness. In cases of practical (and moral) doubt, there is an objection to either a behavior or basic convictions relevant to action, and with religious doubt, to certain religiously motivated convictions as well. Existential doubt about the “meaning of existence” (Dasein) radically calls into question any action orientation (Nihilism, S. Kierkegaard, F. Nietzsche). People will reject or deny a proposition or judgment p if they have good grounds for thinking that p is false and that non- p is true (see also contradiction). To be cautious, they may refuse to pass judgment as to whether p is the case when they are consciously aware of their ignorance or incompetence. There are good reasons why indecisiveness as to p or non- p leads to a conscious reservation of judgment. The words ascribed to Socrates, “I know that I know nothing” (Plato Apol. 22c; in 21b: …

Probability

(716 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael | Evers, Dirk | Gräb-Schmidt , Elisabeth
[German Version] I. Philosophy Objectively, probability is the measure of the chance that a particular event will take place (ontological probability); subjectively, it is the measure of the certainty or credibility of a statement (epistemic probability). The interest in ontological probability arising from decision theory, as in games of chance, led to the mathematical theory of probability (Andrey N. Kolmogorov; Chance). But we must distinguish the logical (

Signs

(2,878 words)

Author(s): Esterbauer, Reinhold | Alles, Gregory D. | Kober, Michael | Ochs, Peter | Linde, Gesche | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology

Semiotics

(3,339 words)

Author(s): Grasmück, Oliver | Macho, Thomas | Alkier, Stefan | Kober, Michael | Vetter, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Semiotics, a discipline inaugurated primarily by C.S. Peirce and Ferdinand de Saussure (see II and IV below), is the systematic analysis of signs (Gk σημεῖον/ sēmeíon

Realism

(4,743 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael | Großhans, Hans-Peter | Kitschen , Friederike | Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel | Linde, Gesche
[German Version] I. Philosophy Realism in a given area B means the ontological thesis that names or terms used in a theory of B refer to things that exist independently of human thought. For example, in natural realism the existence of stones, trees, and ¶ …