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Scientia media

(310 words)

Author(s): Sarot, Marcel
[English Version] (»mittleres Wissen«; engl. middle knowledge) wird so bez., weil es zw. zwei Typen von Wissen angesiedelt wird, die Gott im MA zugeschrieben wurden. Auf der einen Seite besitzt Gott »scientia simplicis intelligentiae« (vollkommenes Wissen von Gottes eigener Natur und des gesamten Bereichs der Möglichkeit, auch »scientia naturalis« genannt). Auf der anderen Seite besitzt Gott »scientia liber« (Wissen von allem, das in Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft als Resultat eines Aktes de…

Middle Knowledge

(321 words)

Author(s): Sarot, Marcel
[German Version] Middle knowledge is so called because it is located between two types of knowledge attributed to God in the Middle Ages. On the one hand, God possesses scientia simplicis intelligentiae (complete knowledge of God's own nature and the whole range of possibilities, also called scientia naturalis). On the other hand, God possesses scientia libera (knowledge of everything, past, present, and future, that happens as the result of an act of God's free will, by which God decides what possibilities will be realized). God's natural knowledge…


(284 words)

Author(s): Sarot, Marcel
[German Version] General. Over the centuries, the term sensation (Ger. Empfindung, Lat. passio corporalis, sensatio) has taken on many different meanings. As a result, it has the reputation of being extremely slippery and has fallen somewhat out of use. If we ignore its use as a synonym for feeling, it has two related meanings: (a) sensory perception and (b) physical sensation. Physical sensations (e.g. feelings of warmth, pain, itching) provide information about the present state of our own bodies and need ¶ not be associated with particular organs. Through sensory perceptio…


(488 words)

Author(s): Hossenfelder, Malte | Sarot, Marcel
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Dogma I. Philosophy ἀπάθεια/ apatheia, “freedom from affects,” is a central concept in Stoic ethics. As did the competing Epicureans (Epicureanism) and Pyrrhoneans (Skepticism), the Stoics saw happiness, regarded as the telos (goal), in inner peace, in the calm and balance of the soul. In their view, the affect, an “overdeveloped urge,” escaped from the control of reason, threatened these qualities (SVF 3,378). I…


(1,259 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Sarot, Marcel | Rosenau, Hartmut
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich V. gehört als theol. Kategorie vornehmlich in den Kontext der jüd.-christl.-isl. Religionsgesch. Der Begriff selbst konnotiert etym. eine örtliche und eine juristische Dimension: die Strafe der Verbannung an einen realen oder imaginären Ort als zeitlich begrenzten oder unbegrenzten Ausschluß vom Heil. Dabei ergeben sich in allen drei Traditionen mehrere Spannungsfelder: hinsichtlich der Sache selbst zw. V. als »automatischer« Folge menschlichen Fehlverhal…


(1,397 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Sarot, Marcel | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics I. History of Religions As a theological category, damnation belongs primarily in the context of the history of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The etymology of the term itself connotes a local and a judicial dimension: the punishment of expulsion to a real or imaginary place as an exclusion from …


(2,404 words)

Author(s): Künne, Wolfgang | Sarot, Marcel | Huxel, Kirsten | Siemann, Jutta
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Die Rede vom S. einer sprachlichen Äußerung ist syst. mehrdeutig. Den verschiedenen Sinnbegriffen entsprechen verschiedene Stufen des Verstehens (Sinnerfassens). Die ersten drei gehören zum Themenfeld der Semantik: (1) Ist der geäußerte Satz P in der Sprache des Sprechers frei von lexikalischer und grammatischer Mehrdeutigkeit, so versteht der Interpret die Äußerung zumindest in einer Hinsicht, wenn er weiß, welchen sprachlichen (lexikalisch-grammatischen) S. der Satz P hat. (2) Ist P mehrdeutig, so versteht man die Äuße…


(1,869 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Sarot, Marcel | Stock, Konrad | Schreiner, Martin
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Practical Theology and Psychology of Religion I. Philosophy Feeling or sense (Lat. sensus, Fr. sentiment, Ger. Gefühl) is the direct sensate awareness of an inward state, in which a unique access to reality is articulated. Until well into the modern era, the term encompassed without distinction both sensory perceptions and emotions (affects, passions, moods). During the 18th century, feeling came to be defined more precisely in its cognitive, expressive-¶ ev…


(2,967 words)

Author(s): Gilhus, Ingvild Sælid | Steinmann, Michael | Sarot, Marcel | Lange, Dietz
[German Version] I. Religion – II. Philosophy – III. History of Theology and Dogmatics – IV. Ethics I. Religion Talk of happiness refers to a deeper level of experience than enjoying oneself or feeling good. Happiness denotes success in life; the pursuit of happiness is a universal element in human life and thought. The hope of happiness may take ritual forms, especially in connection with rites of passage when a change of social position and status makes life uncertain, for instance at birth and weddings. The…


(4,604 words)

Author(s): Bankier, David | Cohn-Sherbok, Dan | Sarot, Marcel | Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] I. History – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics and Ethics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Treatment in Education I. History Hitler assumed power in Germany on Jan 30, 1933. From this date onwards, racism and Antisemitism/Anti-Judaism became central components of the Nazi system (National Socialism). During the first months the NSDAP instigated anti-Semitic riots and campaigns of terror that climaxed on the Apr 1, 1933, with a country-wide boycott on Jewish shops and professionals. In additi…


(2,828 words)

Author(s): Künne, Wolfgang | Sarot, Marcel | Huxel, Kirsten | Siemann, Jutta
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Ethics – V. Practical Theology I. Philosophy To speak of the meaning of a linguistic utterance is ambiguous from a systematic point of view. The various ¶ semantic concepts correspond to various levels of understanding (comprehension of meaning). The first three levels belong to the field of semantics: (1) If the spoken sentence P is free of lexical and grammatical ambiguities in the language of the speaker, then the interpreter understand…


(7,284 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Barton, John | Klaiber, Walter | Sarot, Marcel | Sparn, Walter | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichAnders als in archaischen Kulturen, in denen das Wohlergehen der Gemeinschaft aus rel. Sicht durch rituell beeinflußbare, aber letztlich unkalkulierbare Schicksalsmächte bestimmt ist, entwickeln sich im Kontext der frühen städtischen Hochkulturen rel. Weltbilder, in denen universale Ordnungsbegriffe eine zentrale Rolle spielen. Die »funktionierende Weltordnung« (Klimkeit) wird in diesem religionsgesch. Kontext zum Strukturprinzip von Welterklärungsmode…


(8,171 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Barton, John | Klaiber, Walter | Sarot, Marcel | Sparn, Walter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In archaic cultures, the wellbeing of the community is determined by a fatal power that can be influenced by religious rituals but is ultimately incalculable. In the context of advanced early urban cultures, however, there emerged religious worldviews in which universal concepts of order played a central role. In this historical context, a “functioning world order” (Klimkeit) became the structural principle for models explaining the world. The connection between …