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8. Abū Miḥjan and al-Khuṭayʾa

(119 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition 1. Abū Miḥjan died in exile in Bāṣiʿ, i.e. Massawa. |⁷¹ Ibn Qut., Poes. 251 ff., Khiz. III, 550–6, Suyūṭī, ShshM, 10, 37, Caetani, Annali V, 224–46. Dīwān by Abū Hilāl al-ʿAskarī (d. 395/1005, p. 127) AS 3881 ( WZKM 26, 86), Cairo2 III, 116, 200. 2. al-Ḥuṭayʾa: Ibn Qut., Poes. 180. Dīwān in the recension of al-Sukkarī (p. 108), after Ibn Ḥabīb, Leid. 581, Fātiḥ 3821 ( MFO 5, 501), Istanbul 1308, ed. Aḥmad al-Shinqīṭī, C. 1323, see F.E. al-Bustānī, Mashriq XXVIII, 757–61. Ad …

Chapter 8. The Malay Archipelago

(232 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition 5. Abū ʿAbdallāh Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad al-Mahfanī wrote: Arkān al-nikāḥ, Berl. 4681, Cat. Harrassowitz 444, no. 50 (with glosses in Javanese), Leid. 1907, Rāmpūr I, 236,450, with the commentary Fayḍ al-jawād al-fattāḥ fī bayān Arkān al-nikāḥ by Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sunbalāwī, composed in 1275. |⁶²⁹ 6. Muḥammad Sammān, an esteemed Sufi in the Malay archipelago. Snouck-Hurgronje, The Achehnese I…

5. The Transmission of Arabic Poetry

(981 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
1 In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 1, From the Beginnings until the Appearance of Muḥammad previous chapter | German edition From at least a thousand years before Christ, inscriptions on stone memorials were used in matters of law and religion in southern Arabia. We do not know if people used scripture or poetry on perishable material in their everyday lives. Northern Arabia is not rich in inscriptions, but graffiti in an alphabet resembling south Arabian, and which have been wrongly ref…

Indices

(1,142 words)

|⁶⁸³In volume 2 | Appendices German edition Supplement III, 503ff. 507b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Kassī S II, 918. 512b. ʿAbdallāh b. Hilāl al-Ahwāzī G I, 239/40. 515b. ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad b. Abi ’l-Shaykh N G I, 176 (5665). 517b. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUbaydallāh al-Wāfī al-Fayyūmī S II, 724. 519b. ʿAbd al-Munʿim b. Muḥammad al-Abarqūhī G I, 357. 521b. ʿAbd al-Qādir b. Shaykh b. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAydarūs G II, 551, S II, 617. 524a. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. al-Rabīʿ al-Shaybānī al-Yamanī G II, 186. 526b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. ʿAsākir S I, 610. 530b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. Aḥmad b. Maḥmūd al-Rūmī G I, 446. 533b.…

11. The Translators

(3,338 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition M. Steinschneider, Die arabischen Übersetzungen aus dem Griechischen, Einleitung 1–24, Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen Beiheft 5 Jahrg. VI, 1889, I Abschnitt Philosophie (25–84), Beiheift 12, Jahrg. X 1893, III Die griechischer Ärzte § 1–34, Virchows Archiv 124 (1891), 115/36, 268/96, 455/87, II Mathematik, § 85–139, §140, Alchemie, Index, ZDMG 50, 161/219, 357/417.1 W. Kutsch, Zur Geschichte der syrisch-arab. Über…

12. Philosophy

(3,324 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition S. Munk, Des principaux philosophes arabes et leurs doctrines, in: Mélanges de philosophie juive et arabe, Paris 1859. Goffredo Quadri, La filosofia degli Arabi nel suo fiore, I. dalle origini fino ad Averroe, II. Il Pensiero di Averroe, Florence 1939. Apart from major medical works, these translators also supplied the Islamic world with important works in philosophy. Aristotelian logic had already stimula…

Introduction

(548 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|²⁶⁷In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition After the conquest of Syria and Egypt, the Ottoman Empire was complete. And it did not take long for a lively exchange between the various regions of the eastern Mediterranean to come about, an exchange that was good for trade and for scholarship. The capital Istanbul especially, from where the sultan in his mercy distributed all …

9. Jewish and Christian Poets before Islam

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 1, From the Beginnings until the Appearance of Muḥammad previous chapter | German edition 1. The Jewish colonies in the northern Hijaz were most probably founded by refugees from Palestine after the crushing of their revolt by the Roman emperors Titus and Hadrian. Even though they had been completely Arabised and had also adopted members of authentic Arab tribes into their midst they remained connected to their country of origin not only by their written …

10. Prose Writing at the Time of the Umayyads

(2,532 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 3, The Period of the Umayyads previous chapter | German edition We possess hardly any concrete remains of prose writing from the Umayyad period. 1. a. ʿAbīd (according to Goldziher, Abh. II Anm. 29 ʿUbayd) b. Sharya al-Jurhumī claimed to have first-hand knowledge of the history of the houses of Ghassān and Lakhm. As such, Muʿāwiya invited him from Raqqa1to Damascus to tell him about pre-Islamic times. The book that was supposedly written by him was published in Hyderabad in 1347, based on a manuscr…

9. Dogmatics

(5,570 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl al-Ashʿarī (see p. 345), Maqālāt al-Islāmiyyīn wakhtilāf al-muṣallīn, Die dogmatischen Lehren der Anhänger des Islam, hsg. v. H. Ritter, 2 vols., Bibl. Isl. I, II, Constantinople–Leipzig 1929–30, see R. Strothmann, Islamische Konfessionskunde und das Sektenbuch des Ashʿarī, Isl. XIX, 193–242. ʿAbd al-Qāhir al-Baghdādī (d. 429/1037, see p. 385), al-Farq bayna ’l-firaq, ed. M. Badr, C. 1328/19…

9. Minor Poets

(488 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition 1. Abū Dhuʾayb Khuwaylid b. Khālid al-Qaṭīl was the most important poet of the Hudhayl tribe (see Suppl. I, 42). He took part in the wars of conquest, went with ʿAbdallāh b. Saʿd to Africa in the year 26/646, and died some years later in Egypt while he and |⁴² ʿAbdallāh b. al-Zubayr were on their way to the caliph ʿUthmān to inform him of the conquest of Carthage. His five sons had died one year before him in Egypt of the plague and are bewailed by him in a song of mourning. |³⁷ Agh. V…

8. Abū Miḥjan and al-Ḥuṭayʾa

(383 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition A younger contemporary of Muḥammad was Abū Miḥjan—whose real name is sometimes given as ʿAmr, though at other times as Mālik or ʿAbdallāh b. Ḥabīb—of the tribe of Thaqīf in the Hijaz. When the Prophet, after his capture of Mecca, also wanted to conquer this tribe, Abū Miḥjan took part in the defence of al-Ṭāʾif, the capital. However, when his tribe surrendered he converted to Islam, on 9 Ramaḍ…

2. The Qurʾān

(835 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
1 In volume S1 | book 1, The National Literature of the Arabs | Section 2, Muḥammad and His Time previous chapter | German edition Ad p. 26 Against D.H. Müller’s theory of strophes, to which R. Geyer, WZKM 1908, 265–86 tried to give a new foundation, see also Nöldeke, NB 6 n.3. Repeated attempts to discover lines of poetry in the Qurʾān, already carried out by Arab grammarians (see al-Suyūṭī, Muzhir2I, 291, 1, 234, 23, following Ibn Fāris, see p. 130, Fiqh al-lugha) and replicated in Grimme, Mohammed II (1895), p. 18 ff., have all been just as fruitless; cf. W.F. Warren, Rhyme and R…

Chapter 6. Iran and Tūrān

(9,265 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|⁵⁷⁰ In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 2, From the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in 1517 to the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt in 1798 previous chapter | German edition 1a Poetry and Belles Lettres 1. ʿAbd al-Muʿīn b. Aḥmad b. al-Bakkāʾ al-Balkhī al-Ḥanafī, ca. 972/1564. Ghawāshi ’l-aswāq fī maʿāni ’l-ʿushshāq, on love and friendship, Gotha 1231. 2. Muḥammad Haykal b. Muḥammad al-Jazīnī (?) al-Shāfiʿī wrote, in 1115/1703: Nuzhat al-mushtāq fī riyāḍ al-ʿushshāq, on love, Teh. II, 783. 3. Ṣadr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Niẓām Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Maʿṣūm al-Ḥa…

Chapter 9. India

(5,115 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 3, From the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt Until the British Occupation previous chapter | German edition From among the great quantity of works in Arabic that were written in India in the nineteenth century, a corpus of which Europeans have no complete overview yet, we can only mention the most important ones here. Raḥmān ʿAlī, Tadhkira ʾi ʿulamāʾi Hind, Lucknow 1894. 1. Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Muftī Yār Muḥammad al-Dakkanī al-Malibārī wrote, in 1200/1786: Kawākib al-ʿirfān bi-taḥqīq al-subḥān al-mulaqqab bil-Sabʿ al-sāʾira, …

Chapter 3. Mesopotamia and Iraq

(8,448 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume S2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 3, From the Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt Until the British Occupation previous chapter | German edition Given that, in the nineteenth century, cultural life was restricted to just a few places in the Jazīra and Iraq, where it was also dominated by only a few families, it is best to order its representatives by their place of origin rather than by theme. The Shīʿa of Najaf and Karbala have remained entirely unaffected by the cultural movements of twentieth-…

1. Introduction

(411 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition The thoroughly Arab and, to a certain degree, traditional rule of the Umayyads had already long been weakened by discord amongst the various tribes before it collapsed completely following the influx of the Persians, who, oppressed until then, had been shaken into renewed self-awareness by the successive upheavals of the ʿAlids and ʿAbbāsids. At the court of Baghdad,…

15. Geography

(2,571 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|²²⁵In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 1, The Classical Period from ca. 750 until ca. 1000 previous chapter | German edition F. Wüstenfeld, Die Literatur der Erdbeschreibung bei den Arabern, Zeitschr. f. vergl. Erdkunde I, Magdeburg 1842. M. Reinaud, Introduction générale à la géographie des orientaux, in Géographie dʼAboulfeda I, Paris 1848. J. Lelewel, Géographie du moyen âge, 4 vols., Bruxelles 1850/7, Géographie des Arabes, Paris 1851 (see Günther, Geschichte der Erdkunde, 1904, p. 40 n.). M.J. de Goeje, Eenige mededeelingen van de Ara…

6. Ḥadīth

(9,238 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
In volume 1 | book 2, Islamic Literature in the Arabic Language | Section 2, The Post-Classical Period of Islamic Literature from ca. 400/1000 until ca. 656/1258 previous chapter | German edition When the widespread movement that resulted in the shaping and collecting of ḥadīths had come to a standstill as a consequence of the completion of the canonical collections, any possibility of further creative production in this area ceased. But the ʿilm al-ḥadīth continued to keep writers busy. From the large collections, smaller collections were put together by disregarding the isnād and pu…

9. Spain

(3,258 words)

Author(s): Carl Brockelmann
|²⁵⁸³³⁵In volume 2 | book 3, The Decline of Islamic Literature | Section 1, From Mongol Rule Until the Conquest of Egypt by Sultan Selīm I in the Year 1517 previous chapter | German edition Due to the steady advance of the Christians, Islam in Spain was now almost totally limited to the kingdom of Granada. Thanks to skilful political manoeuvring amongst its various enemies, it was able to stand its ground for another two hundred years and to offer a safe haven for Arab trade and industry. At its court the traditions of a great li…
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