Brill’s Digital Library of World War I

Search

Your search for 'tei_subject:"Germany"' returned 424 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

The Cultivation of Deutschtum in Occupied Lithuania during the First World War

(10,520 words)

Author(s): Barthel, Christopher
Barthel, Christopher - The Cultivation of Deutschtum in Occupied Lithuania during the First World War ISFWWS-Keywords: Russian Front | Germany | Culture | Literature | Russia | Politics World War I and Propaganda Troy R.E. Paddock , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004264571 DOI: 10.1163/9789004264571_012 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Barthel, Christopher

Two Kinds of Occupation? German and Austro-Hungarian Economic Policy in Congress Poland, 1915–1918

(8,808 words)

Author(s): Lehnstaedt, Stephan
Lehnstaedt, Stephan - Two Kinds of Occupation? German and Austro-Hungarian Economic Policy in Congress Poland, 1915–1918 ISFWWS-Keywords: Poland | Germany | Austria-Hungary | Economy Other Fronts, Other Wars? Joachim Bürgschwentner, Matthias Egger and Gunda Barth-Scalmani , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004279513 DOI: 10.1163/9789004279513_010 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Lehnstaedt, Stephan

Luckner, Felix Count von

(343 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Luckner, Felix Count von (June 9, 1881, Dresden – April 13, 1966, Malmö), German naval officer. Luckner left the Gymnasium (grammar school) at the age of 13 and sailed as ship’s boy on the steamer Niobe to Australia, where he worked as a dishwasher, fakir’s helper, Salvation Army missionary, and prize boxer. Wishing to make the acquaintance of his idol Buffalo Bill, Luckner signed on as a seaman on a four-master bound for San Francisco. From there he hiked across the American continent, although he failed to meet …

The Transformation of Local Public Spheres: German, Belgian and Dutch Border Towns during the First World War Compared

(9,388 words)

Author(s): Liemann, Bernhard
Liemann, Bernhard - The Transformation of Local Public Spheres: German, Belgian and Dutch Border Towns during the First World War Compared ISFWWS-Keywords: Home fronts | Germany | Belgium | Netherlands | Violence against civilians Other Fronts, Other Wars? Joachim Bürgschwentner, Matthias Egger and Gunda Barth-Scalmani , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004279513 DOI: 10.1163/9789004279513_017 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Liemann, Bernhard

Central Office for Public Information

(370 words)

Author(s): Brandt, Susanne
Central Office for Public Information A public opinion bureau conceived in March 1918 under the aegis of the Foreign Office, to be officially free from military oversight. Initially established in October 1918 as the Zentrale für Heimatdienst (Central Office for Homeland Service) under State Secretary Erzberger, it was renamed the Reichszentrale für Heimatdienst in November 1919. The establishment of the Central Office indicates the growing opposition among the German Supreme Army Command, the Kaiser, and the civilian Reich leadership. Politician…

Gas Warfare

(1,909 words)

Author(s): Müller, Rolf-Dieter
Gas Warfare With the large-scale use of poisonous chlorine gas at Ypres on April 22, 1915, the Germans opened a new chapter in the history of modern warfare. It marked the birth of a new “weapon of mass destruction,” which has had a profound impact on war and peace in the twentieth century and beyond. The use of poison gas became one of the hallmark phenomena of the First World War because it changed the image of the soldier and his “chivalrous struggle” much more radically than any other contemporary weapons development. The question of guilt – which side violated the Hague Convention…

War Poetry

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Hüppauf, Bernd
War Poetry Prophecies of a coming war had been a theme in German poetry since the beginning of the century. Expressionist poets conjured up the war in apocalyptic images that alternated between the fear of its violence and a yearning for its purifying and regenerative power. Feelings of restlessness and dissatisfaction over a long and “foul” peace gave rise to fantasies of war in the sense of a longed-for renewal, often expressed through theological formulations such as J…

The Imperial Japanese Navy and the First World War: Unprecedented Opportunities and Harsh Realities

(10,272 words)

Author(s): Schencking, J. Charles
Schencking, J. Charles - The Imperial Japanese Navy and the First World War: Unprecedented Opportunities and Harsh Realities ISFWWS-Keywords: Asia | Naval Warfare | Britain | Germany | Economy | Politics The Decade of the Great War Tosh Minohara , Tze-ki Hon and Evan Dawley , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004274273 DOI: 10.1163/9789004274273_006 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Schencking, J. Charles

Christmas Memorandum of 1915

(490 words)

Author(s): Afflerbach, Holger
Christmas Memorandum of 1915 Supposedly, a situation report Falkenhayn gave in a memorandum conveyed to the Kaiser some time around Christmas. The document in question comes down to us only through Falkenhayn’s own memoirs, Die Oberste Heeresleitung 1914–1916 in ihren wichtigsten Entschließungen (The Supreme Army Command 1914–1916 in Its Most Critical Decisions, 1920). For this reason its authenticity is doubtful. The Christmas Memorandum, concerning strategic plans for 1916, includes several fundamental declarations: Britain was the primary enemy. Britain…

Wartime Cookbooks

(280 words)

Author(s): Brandt, Susanne
Wartime Cookbooks Recipe books from periods of war-induced food shortage are now largely no more than amusing flea-market finds. Wartime cookbooks are, in fact, tokens of a significant problem of the First World War. Important foodstuffs were rationed in most countries during the war. Food was “eked out,” for instance by adding a proportion of potato flour to bread dough. Bread produced with a high proportion of potato was disliked by consumers. Suggestions as to how food could be supplemented, an…

Sailors’ Revolt (Kiel Mutiny)

(1,108 words)

Author(s): Epkenhans, Michael
Sailors’ Revolt (Kiel Mutiny) Beginning in late October 1918, the Sailors’ Revolt ushered in the end of Imperial Germany. Within only just a few days the mutiny spread from Kiel to the entire German Reich. Mutinous sailors, soldiers stationed in the homeland, and industrial workers joined forces to overthrow the antiquated old order. The High Seas Fleet had already been shaken by commotions in the summer of 1917. These had been caused by monotonous on-board duties as well as by poor and unequal foods rations. Another cause of unrest was the latent…

We and Homeland: German Occupation, Lithuanian Discourse, and War Experience in Ober Ost

(8,297 words)

Author(s): Griffante, Andrea
Griffante, Andrea - We and Homeland: German Occupation, Lithuanian Discourse, and War Experience in Ober Ost ISFWWS-Keywords: Russian Front | Violence against civilians | Germany | Home fronts | Russia | Religion Other Fronts, Other Wars? Joachim Bürgschwentner, Matthias Egger and Gunda Barth-Scalmani , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004279513 DOI: 10.1163/9789004279513_012 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Griffante, Andrea

Introduction

(7,610 words)

Author(s): Paddock, Troy R.E.
Paddock, Troy R.E. - Introduction ISFWWS-Keywords: Society | Science | Technology | Medicine | Soldiers and Combat | Politics | Home fronts | Literature | General | The French and British Empires | Neutral States | Germany World War I and Propaganda Troy R.E. Paddock , (2014) Publication Editor: Brill, The Netherlands, 2014 e-ISBN: 9789004264571 DOI: 10.1163/9789004264571_002 © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands Paddock, Troy R.E.

Bissing, Baron Moritz Ferdinand von

(475 words)

Author(s): Gerhards, Thomas
Bissing, Baron Moritz Ferdinand von ( January 30, 1844, Bellmannsdorf, Silesia – April 18, 1917, Trois Fontaines, Belgium), German general. The son of a Prussian chamberlain and estate holder from a Saxon noble family Bissing chose a military career early, serving as an officer in the wars of 1866 and 1870–1871. In 1887 he became adjutant to Crown Prince Wilhelm, and after the latter’s accession to the Imperial throne in 1888, was named the emperor’s aide-de-camp. It was this appointment which laid t…

Mercier, Désiré Joseph

(324 words)

Author(s): Roolf, Christoph
Mercier, Désiré Joseph (November 21, 1851, Eigenbrakel [Braine-l’Alleud near Brussels] – January 23, 1926, Brussels), Belgian cardinal. Ordained as a priest in 1874, Mercier was a highly successful teacher of philosophy and theology at the Catholic University of Louvain from 1882. In 1906 he became archbishop of the largest Belgian diocese of Mechelen, and was made a cardinal in 1907. With the outbreak of war in 1914, after the occupation of the country and the flight of King Albert I and the Belgi…

Conscription

(596 words)

Author(s): Storz, Dieter
Conscription A state’s compulsory enlistment of its citizens for military service. Conscription in the modern sense arose during the French Revolution. The new state, founded on the will of the people, demanded military service from its citizens. This enabled the state to expand its armed forces enormously, and to intensify its military activities accordingly. European monarchies too had to resort to this means of raising an army, if they wished to assert themselves militarily against France. Once Napoleon…

Albion

(236 words)

Author(s): Reimann, Aribert
Albion (Celtic: white-land) Earliest known name given to the island of Great Britain by Greek geographers of the 5th century BC, transmitted by the Roman poet Avianus. In Roman times the term was also associated with the white cliffs of Dover (Lat. albus = white). During the Middle Ages, “Albion” came to be used as a synonym for the Kingdom of England, and later the British Empire, most often in a negative connotation as “perfidious Albion.” This derogatory slogan has its origins in France, where it can be traced as far back as the 14th…

Mobilization

(664 words)

Author(s): Thoss, Bruno
Mobilization The conversion of a nation’s military forces to a state of war, callled specifically “military mobilization,” and the adaptation of its government and industry to the demands of the war, known as “military mobilization.” Military mobilization for the World War had been planned in detail during peacetime. The preplanned procedures were intended to outfit military units with personnel, uniforms and equipment so as to bring them swiftly up to war strength. When the war began, frontier p…

Carol I, King of Romania

(296 words)

Author(s): Höpken, Wolfgang
Carol I, King of Romania (April 20, 1839, Sigmaringen – October 10, 1914, Peleş Castle near Sinaia), born Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrin of Hohenzollern, Prince of Romania (1866–1881), from 1881 King of Romania. After Alexandru Cuza, the first ruler of the Romanian state created from the united principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, was deposed in April 1866, the Romanian Parliament elected Carol, a member of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, as the new head of state. Despite the initial skepticism of Austria in particul…

Fall K. German Offensive Plans against the Netherlands 1916–1918

(14,497 words)

Author(s): Klinkert, W.
Klinkert, W. - Fall K. German Offensive Plans against the Netherlands 1916–1918 Keywords: army leadership | Dutch neutrality | Netherlands | Operationsentwurf Fall K ISFWWS-Keywords: Germany | Netherlands | International Relations during the War | Naval Warfare | Britain Abstract: This chapter is divided into the following parts: 1914, when the fortified positions take shape, 1915, when the tension rose, 1916, when the Operationsentwurf Fall K took form, 1917, when attack on the Netherlands was planned and 1918, which …
▲   Back to top   ▲