Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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Yazīd b. Abī Sufyān

(295 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Ḥarb b. Umayya, Arab commander of the conquests period, son of the Meccan leader Abū Sufyān [ q.v.] by his wife Zaynab bt. Nawfal and half-brother of the subsequent caliph Muʿāwiya I [ q.v.], d. 18/639 without progeny (Ibn Ḳutayba, Maʿārif ed. ʿUkās̲h̲a, 344-5). With his father and brother, he became a Muslim at the conquest of Mecca in 8/630, took part in the ensuing battle of Ḥunayn [ q.v.] and was one of “those whose hearts are won over”, receiving from the Prophet a gift of 100 camels and 40 ounces of silver (Ibn Saʿd, ii/1, 110, vii/2, 127; al-Wāḳidī, iii, 944-5; and see al-muʾallafa ḳulūbuh…

Abu ’l-Aʿwar ʿAmr b. Sufyān al-Sulamī

(307 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H.
general in the service of Muʿāwiya. He belonged to the powerful tribe of Sulaym (hence "al-Sulamī"); his mother was a Christian and his father had fought at Uḥud in the ranks of the Ḳurays̲h̲. The son, who does not seem to have belonged to the closest circle of the Prophet, went, probably with the army commanded by Yazīd b. Abī Sufyān, to Syria. In the battle of the Yarmūk he was in charge of a detachment, and from that time he followed faithfully the fortunes of the Umayyads. He thus exposed hi…

Abū Sufyān

(676 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
b. Ḥarb b. Umayya , of the clan of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams of Ḳurays̲h̲, prominent Meccan merchant and financier (to be distinguished from Muḥammad’s cousin, Abū Sufyān b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib). His name was Ṣak̲h̲r, and his kunya is sometimes given as Abū Ḥanẓala. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams had been at one time a member of the political group known as the Muṭayyabūn (which included the clan of Hās̲h̲im), but about Muḥammad’s time had moved away from this group and in some matters cooperated with the rival group, Mak̲h̲zūm.…

Yazīd b. Abī Muslim

(282 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
(Dīnār), Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ, secretary and governor under the Umayyads. He was a mawlā , not by manumission (presumably by conversion), of T̲h̲aḳīf [ q.v.], and foster-brother and secretary, but not mawlā, of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [ q.v.] (thus al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī and al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ). He ran the dīwān al-rasāʾil for al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ and took charge of the taxes of ʿĪrāḳ when the latter died in 95/714, but was dismissed and jailed on Sulaymān’s accession in 96/715. His cruelty was so notorious that ʿUmar II reputedly left him i…

S̲h̲uraḥbīl b. Ḥasana

(297 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, early Meccan convert to Islam, prominent Companion of the Prophet and leading commander in the Arab invasions of Syria, d. 18/639. Apparently of Kindī origin, he was known by his mother’s name Ḥasana, but his patrilineal nasab was ... b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Muṭāḥ b. ʿAmr. He is described as a ḥalīf or confederate [see ḥilf ] of the Meccan clan of Zuhra but as also being connected, through another marriage of his mother, with D̲j̲umaḥ. As an early convert, he took part in the second hid̲j̲ra or migration to Ethiopia (see Ibn Sa’d, iv/1, 94, vii, 118; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-g̲h̲āba

Yazīd b. Dīnār

(10 words)

[see yazīd b. abī muslim ].

S̲h̲abīb b. Yazīd

(664 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Robinson, C.F.
b. Nuʿaym al-S̲h̲aybānī, K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ite leader of the early Umayyad period. A tribesman of the Banū Hammām b. Murra b. D̲h̲uhl lineage of the S̲h̲aybān, S̲h̲abīb’s father Yazīd b. Nuʿaym emigrated from al-Kūfa to the region of al-Mawṣil, and participated in Salmān b. Rabīʿa al-Bāhilī’s raids along the northern frontier; during one of these Nuʿaym is said to have taken a wife, and the union produced S̲h̲abīb in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a of year 25 (September/October 646) or 26 (September/October 647). S̲h̲abīb seems to have grown up in al-Mawṣil, ¶ perhaps in the town of Sātīdamā (on th…

al-Ḥurr b. Yazīd

(534 words)

Author(s): Kister, M.J.
b. Nād̲j̲iya b. Kaʿnab b. ʿAttāb b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. ʿAmr b. Hammām al-Riyāḥī , al-Yarbūʿī , al-Tamīmī came at the head of a troop of 1000 horsemen from al-Ḳādisiyya as a vanguard of the forces sent by ʿUbayd Allāh b. Ziyād, the governor of al-ʿIrāḳ against al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib [ q.v.]. The latter was advancing at the time with a group of his kindred and followers in the direction of al-Kūfa. Al-Ḥurr was ordered to follow closely the group of al-Ḥusayn so as to bring him to ʿUbayd Allāh in al-Kūfa; he was however not told to fight. Accordi…

Yazīd (I) b. Muʿāwiya

(1,542 words)

Author(s): G.R. Hawting
, the second Umayyad caliph ( r. 60-4/680-3). He was named as his successor by his father [see muʿāwiya i ]. His mother was Maysūn, a sister of the Kalbī leader Ibn Baḥdal [see Ḥassān b. mālik ]. The Banū Kalb [see kalb b. wabara ] were strong in the southern regions of Syria, and Muʿāwiya appointed Yazīd as his successor in preference to an older half-brother, ʿAbd Allāh, born of a Ḳuras̲h̲ī mother. Yazīd’s kunya , Abū K̲h̲ālid, refers to one of his own younger sons [see k̲h̲ālid b. yazīd ]. During his father’s caliphate, Yazīd commanded expeditions ( ṣawāʾif see Ṣāʾifa . 1…

K̲h̲ālid b. Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya

(724 words)

Author(s): Ullmann, M.
, abū hās̲h̲im , was one of the sons of the caliph Yazīd I ¶ and Fāk̲h̲ita bint Abī Hās̲h̲im b. ʿUtba b. Rabīʿa. The year of his birth is not recorded, but he was probably born ca. 48/668. When his brother Muʿāwiya II died in 64/683 without having designated his successor, a struggle broke out. Ḥassān b. Mālik b. Baḥdal [ q.v.] favoured K̲h̲ālid, who was however not elected because he was too young. In his place the elderly Marwān b. al-Ḥakam [ q.v.] was chosen, on the condition that he would be succeeded first by K̲h̲ālid b. Yazīd and then by ʿAmr b. Saʿīd b. al-ʿĀs al-As̲h̲daḳ [ q.v.]. Marwān furtherm…

Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī

(1,409 words)

Author(s): Raddatz, H.P.
, Sufyān b. Saʿīd b. Masrūḳ Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Kūfī (97-161/716-78), prominent representative of early Islamic law, tradition, and Ḳurʾān interpretation, founder of the T̲h̲awriyya law school and important link in numerous ḥadīt̲h̲ transmissions of juridical, religious and dogmatic subjects on a broad literary scale, including the major musnad works. Born 97/715-16 in Kūfa, Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī soon belonged to the exclusive Kūfan law circles around Ḥammād b. Abī Sulaymān (d. 120/737), Abū Isḥāḳ al-Sabīʿī (128/745), Manṣūr b. al-Muʿtamir (132/749)…

Sufyān al-ʿAbdī

(623 words)

Author(s): Achèche, Taieb el-
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Sufyān b. Muṣʿab al-ʿAbdī, of the ʿAbd al-Ḳays, an Arab poet of the 2nd/8th century. The date of his birth is not known and the date of his death is not generally agreed. On the one hand al-ʿĀmilī in his Aʿyān al-S̲h̲īʿa has him die in 120/739, whereas al-Amīnī in al-G̲h̲adīr cites the date as 178/794. He was probably born and spent most of his life in Kūfa. According to the sources he is said to have known the famous S̲h̲īʿī poet al-Sayyid al-Ḥimyarī (d. 173/789? [ q.v.]), who is supposed to have said “were it not for al-ʿAbdī I would have been the greatest poet”. His relationship with…

Yazīd b. Miḳsam Ibn Ḍabba

(492 words)

Author(s): W.P. Heinrichs
al-T̲h̲aḳafī ( fl. first half of the 2nd/8th century). Arab poet, member of the circle around the caliph al-Walīd b. Yazīd [ q.v.]. He was a mawlā of the tribe of T̲h̲aḳīf in al-Ṭāʾif; according to the philologist al-Aṣmaʿī [ q.v.], who knew him, his Arabic was nonetheless pure ( Ag̲h̲ānī , vii, 103). Since his father died when he was still young, he became known as Ibn Ḍabba after his mother, who as the dry nurse of the children of al-Mug̲h̲īra b. S̲h̲uʿba [ q.v.] and of his son ʿUrwa was a woman of some standing. He seems to have befriended al-Walīd early on, since on account …

(al-)Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib

(10,546 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, grandson of the Prophet and son of Fāṭima [ q.v.], famous because of his revolt which ended tragically at Karbalāʾ on 10 Muḥarram 61/October 680. Childhood and youth. (Al-)Ḥusayn was born at Medina, according to the majority of the sources in the beginning of S̲h̲aʿbān 4/January 626. He was thus still a child when the Prophet died and could therefore have very few memories of his grandfather. A number of ḥadīt̲h̲s mention the affectionate phrases which Muḥammad is said to have used of his grandsons, e.g., “whoever loves them loves me and whoever hates them hates me” and “al-Ḥas…

(al-)Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib

(3,663 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima [ q.v.], claimant to the caliphate until he renounced the office in favour of Muʿāwiya b. Abī Sufyān, and, in the eyes of the S̲h̲īʿīs, the second imām . Early years. He was born in 3/624-5 (the month is uncertain; mid-Ramaḍān?) and given the name al-Ḥasan by Muḥammad, while his father wanted to call him Ḥarb; he lived with the Prophet for only seven years, but was nevertheless able later to recollect some of his phrases and actions (for example that Muḥammad threw back into the heap of ṣadaḳa dates one which he had already put into his mout…

Yazīd (II) b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(818 words)

Author(s): Lammens, H. | Blankinship, Kh. Y.
, the ninth Umayyad caliph, r. 101-5/720-4. He was born in Damascus ca. 71/690-1. His mother was ʿĀtika bt. Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya, and he was named after his Sufyānī grandfather, the caliph Yazīd I. Thus Yazīd II joined in his person the Marwānid and the Sufyānid branches of the Umayyad family, making him a natural candidate for the succession. Like most other Umayyad princes, he appears to have travelled outside of Syria only to the Ḥid̲j̲āz. Also, he seems to have received neither administrative nor military …

Muḥammad b. Abī Ḥud̲h̲ayfa

(561 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿUtba b. Rabīʿa b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim (genealogy in the D̲j̲amhara of Ibn al-Kalbī, Tab. 8), Companion of the Prophet born in Abyssinia, to which his father and his mother (Sahla bint Suhayl b. ʿAmr) had emigrated (Ibn His̲h̲ām, Sīra , ed. Saḳḳā et alii, i, 322, ii, 369). Following the death of his father in 12/633 at the battle of ʿAḳrabāʾ [ q.v.] against Musaylima [ q.v.], the young orphan was brought up by ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, a fact which makes all the more reprehensible the conduct which he was later to engage in. Sent to Egypt, he took part in th…

ʿAḳīl b. Abī Ṭālib

(411 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, elder brother of ʿAlī, who was 20 years his junior. After fighting against the Muslims at Badr, where he was taken prisoner and ransomed by al-ʿAbbās, he became a convert to Islām. The sources give contradictory information as to the date of this event (after the capture of Mecca, according to al-Balād̲h̲urī; shortly before or after the pact of al-Ḥudaybiya, according to Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, etc.), as well as on his participation in the Ḵh̲aybar and Mūta expeditions, the capture of Mecca, and the bat…

Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr

(887 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
, a son of the first caliph, who was prominent in the opposition against the caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān [ q.v.] and who governed Egypt on behalf of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib [ q.v.] for a time during the fitna . According to tradition he was born in the year of the Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲at al-Wadāʿ or “Farewell Pilgrimage” (10/632), and he is further associated with this important event by the report that his mother gave birth to him beneath the tree where the Prophet entered iḥrām on that occasion. He belonged to the Ḳuras̲h̲ī clan of Taym b. Murra, while his mother, Asmāʾ bint ʿUma…

Saʿd b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Hawting, G.R.
(d. during Muʿāwiya’s caliphate), a leading Companion of the Prophet and commander of the Arab armies during the conquest of ʿIrāḳ. His clan was the Banū Zuhra b. Kilāb of Ḳuraysh. His own kunya is given as Abū Is̲ḥāḳ but he is also known as (and sometimes listed in biographical dictionaries under) Saʿd b. Mālik since his father’s name was Mālik b. Wuhayb (or Uhayb) b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Zuhra. There does not seem to be any explanation why Malīk should have had the kunya Abū Waḳḳās. A tradition says that Saʿd asked the Prophet who he was and received the answer…
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