Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān


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(1,386 words)

Author(s): Erder, Yoram
A qurʾānic prophet (see prophets and prophethood ) blessed with the virtues of piety (q.v.) and patience (see trust and patience ). There is no doubt that his uniqueness is the result of his ascent to a high station by the hand of God ( q 19:56-7; 21:85). Muslim tradition claims that he ascended to heaven while still alive and there he was awarded eternal life and a permanent home in the fourth heaven, although some traditions place him in the sixth heaven (see heaven and sky ). Indeed, the prophet Muḥammad meets him in heaven during his nocturnal journey ( isrāʾ, see ascension ). Other traditions…


(4 words)

 see idrīs Bibliography

E (Elias, J. - Ezra [ʿEzrā; ʿUzayr])

(621 words)

Elias, J.  Face of God  Job  John the Baptist  Lamp  Light  Throne of God  Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān Eliash  Revision and Alteration Elijah Muhammad (d. 1975)  African Americans Elijah [Ilyās]  Alexander  Baal  Dhū l-Kifl  Elijah  Elisha  Foretelling in the Qurʾān  Gog and Magog  Good Deeds  Grammar and the Qurʾān  Idrīs  Invitation  Khaḍir/Khiḍr  Messenger  Narratives  Peace  Prophets and Prophethood  Sīra and the Qurʾān  Zechariah Elisha [al-Yasaʿ]  Dhū l-Kifl  Elijah  Elisha  Ezekiel  Ishmael  Job  Narratives  Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān Elizabeth  Aaron  Creation Elmalıl…

C (Caetani, L. - Childs, B.)

(568 words)

Caetani, L.  Expeditions and Battles  Sīra and the Qurʾān Cahen, C.  Contemporary Critical Practices and the Qurʾān Cain [Qābīl]  Adam and Eve  Animal Life  Brother and Brotherhood  Burial  Cain and Abel   Children of   Idrīs  Corruption  Dialogues  Hell and Hellfire  History and the Qurʾān  Literacy  Murder  Narratives  Noah  Repentance and Penance  Vengeance Cairo  Adultery and Fornication  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān  Cave   Congress on Arab Music (1932)   Recitation of the Qurʾān  Drowning  Epigraphy  Everyday Life, Qurʾān In  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Early Mode…


(727 words)

Author(s): Tottoli, Roberto
A messenger (q.v.) and prophet who is mentioned three times in the Qurʾān. In the first instance the name of Elijah (Ilyās) is cited along with those of Zechariah (q.v.), John (see john the baptist ) and Jesus (q.v.) with the statement that “all were of the righteous” ( q 6:85). The name of Elijah is next mentioned at the beginning of a passage ( q 37:123-32) that recounts his vicissitudes in the manner of ¶ other qurʾānic punishment stories (q.v.) involving the prophets and their peoples (see prophets and prophethood ). There Elijah is identified as one of the messengers, the one who c…

I (Ibn Ḥajar al-Haytamī (d. 974/1567) - al-Qurʾān Printers, Bombay)

(1,032 words)

Ibn Ḥajar al-Haytamī (d. 974/1567)  Sin, Major and Minor Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī (d. 852/1449)  Foreign Vocabulary  Occasions of Revelation  Satanic Verses  Sin, Major and Minor  Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies Ibn Ḥanbal, Aḥmad (d. 241/855)  Anthropomorphism  Companions of the Prophet  Court  Createdness of the Qurʾān  Creeds  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval  Hell and Hellfire  Honey  Inimitability  Intercession  Manual Labor  Muʿtazila  Names of the Prophet  Noah  Philosophy and the Qurʾān  Preserved Tablet  Raqīm  Recitation of the Qurʾān  Scr…

M (Macdonald, D. - Marar Trading Company, Baghdad)

(616 words)

Macdonald, D.  Idolatry and Idolaters Macoraba  Geography Madelung, W.  Createdness of the Qurʾān  Emigration  Inimitability Madhabite  Yemen Madhḥij  Divination  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic Madigan, D.A.  Book  Criterion  Preserved Tablet  Revelation and Inspiration Madyan see Midian Madyanites see Midianites Madāʾ  Archaeology and the Qurʾān Madāʾin  Jerusalem Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ  Antichrist  Thamūd  Ḥijr al-Madāʾinī  Conquest Maghrib  Calligraphy  Khārijīs  Manuscripts of the Qurʾān  Mosque  Numismatics  Ornamentation and Illumination  Prayer Formulas  …

A (Arabian(s) - Philosophy and the Qurʾān)

(689 words)

Arabian(s)  Messenger  South Arabia, Religions in Pre-Islamic  The Collection of the Qurʾān Arabic (language)  African Literature  Agriculture and Vegetation  Ambiguous  Arabic Language  Arabic Script  Arabs  Ark  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān  Authority  Christians and Christianity  Chronology and the Qurʾān   Classical (CA)   Arabic Language   Grammar and the Qurʾān   Language and Style of the Qurʾān   Money   Moon   Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān   Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies   Readings of the Qurʾān   Slaves and Slavery   Tabl…

J (-jīm- - j-h-n-m)

(589 words)

-jīm-   j-b-b    jubb    Water   j-b-h    jibāh    Anatomy   j-b-l    jabal, pl. jibāl    Kaʿba    Pilgrimage    jabal makka   j-b-r    ijbār    Tolerance and Coercion    jabarūt    Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān    jabbār, pl. jabābira    Arrogance    God and his Attributes    History and the Qurʾān    Idrīs    Insolence and Obstinacy    Names of the Prophet    Politics and the Qurʾān    Pride    jabbārīn    War    jabr    Politics and the Qurʾān    jabriyya    Ambiguous    Philosophy and the Qurʾān   j-b-s    jibsun    Jibt   j-b-t    jibt    Foreign Vocabulary    Idolatry and Idolaters    …

T (Thailand - Tornberg, C.J.)

(587 words)

Thailand  Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān al-Thaʿlabī, Abū Isḥāq Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm (d. 427/1035)  Alexander  Commandments  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval  Hārūt and Mārūt  Hūd  Insolence and Obstinacy  Khaḍir/Khiḍr  Literature and the Qurʾān  Persian Literature and the Qurʾān  Prophets and Prophethood  Raqīm  Religion  Satanic Verses  Traditional Disciplines of Qurʾānic Studies  Tubbaʿ  Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān Thamudeni  Archaeology and the Qurʾān Thamānīn  Ararat Thamūd  Animal Life  Archaeology and the Qurʾān  Arrogance  Brother and Brothe…

P (Pococke, Edward (d. 1691) - Punjabi (language))

(340 words)

Pococke, Edward (d. 1691)  Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies  Translations of the Qurʾān Poimandres  Idrīs Poonawala, I.K.  Ritual and the Qurʾān [Pope] Eugene IV  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies [Pope] Pius II  Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies [Pope] Pius IX  Bahāʾīs Porter, V.  Epigraphy Pos(t)nikov, P.V.  Translations of the Qurʾān Possessor of the Two Horns [Dhū l-Qarnayn]  Authority  Chastisement and Punishment  Gog and Magog  History and the Qurʾān  Muḥammad  Narratives  News  Persian…

D (Dacca - Decius)

(483 words)

Dacca  Printing of the Qurʾān al-Ḍaḥḥāk (King Bīwarasb) see Bīwarasb al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Muzāḥim (d. 105/723)  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval  Jesus  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Paradise  Satanic Verses Dahlan, A.  Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān Dajjāl see Antichrist Dakake, M.M.  Ṣiffīn, Battle of Dakhla Oasis  Readings of the Qurʾān Dale, G.  Translations of the Qurʾān Dallal, A.  Calendar  Day and Night  Science and the Qurʾān Damascenes  Ritual and the Qurʾān Damascus  Antichrist  Arabic Script  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān  Cain and Abel  Captives  Cav…

(-ṣād- - ṣ-w-r - ṣ-ḥ-ḥ)

(509 words)

ṣ-w-r    muṣawwir    God and his Attributes    Iconoclasm    taṣwīr    Ashes    Literary Structures of the Qurʾān    ṣawwara    Cosmology    God and his Attributes    Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān    ṣāra    Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān    ṣūr    Apocalypse    Eschatology    Instruments    Last Judgment    Resurrection    ṣūra, pl. ṣuwar    Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān    God and his Attributes    Magic    Persian Literature and the Qurʾān    fī aḥsana ṣuwarakum    ʿalā ṣūratihi   ṣ-w-t    ṣawt, pl. aṣwāt    Anatomy    Speech   ṣ-w-ʿ    ṣuwāʿ    Cups an…

J (Judaism - Jārūdites)

(422 words)

Judaism  Abraham  Abrogation  Agriculture and Vegetation  Angel  Anthropomorphism  Apocalypse  Apologetics  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān  Baptism  Belief and Unbelief  Calf of Gold  Carrion  Children  Christians and Christianity  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Community and Society in the Qurʾān  Creation  Expeditions and Battles  Faith  Fasting  Foreign Vocabulary  Form and Structure of the Qurʾān  Fosterage  Freedom and Predestination  Geography  History and the Qurʾān  Isaac  Islam  Jerusalem  Jews and Judaism  Justice and Injustice  Lactation  Language and S…

Q (-qāf- - q-d-s - q-r-d)

(477 words)

q-d-s    muqaddas    Names of the Prophet    Profane and Sacred    Sacred Precincts    qudsī    Garden    Names of the Prophet    Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān    qudus    Holy Spirit    Profane and Sacred   q-d-w    iqtidāʾ    Fear   q-d-ḥ    qidḥ, pl. aqdāḥ    Gambling    Soothsayer   q-dh-f    maqdhūf    Flogging    qadhafa    Fear    qadhf    Flogging    Gossip    Law and the Qurʾān    Witnessing and Testifying   q-dh-r    qadhir    Contamination   q-f-l    qufl, pl. aqfāl    Instruments   q-f-r    qaf[f]ūr    Camphor    qāfūr    Camphor   q-f-w    qaffā    Prophets and Prophethood    q…

A (Antioch - Arab(s) [al-ʿarab])

(580 words)

Antioch  Monasticism and Monks  Narratives  Philosophy and the Qurʾān  Rass  Syria Antiochus  Expeditions and Battles  People of the Ditch Antiochus IV  Antichrist Antiquity, Late  Material Culture and the Qurʾān Antoun, Richard  Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān Anṣārī of Herat see Anṣārī al-Harawī, ʿAbdallāh (d. 481/1089) Apartheid  Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān Aphraates (Aphrahat)  Creation Aphrodito  Aqṣā Mosque Apollo  Springs and Fountains Apollonius  Agriculture and Vegetation Apostle  Apostle  Illiteracy  Informants Aqaba [ʿAqaba]  Arabic Script  Archaeo…

T (Torrey, C. - al-Tirmidhī, Abū ʿīsā Muḥammad b. ʿīsā)

(573 words)

Torrey, C.  Agriculture and Vegetation  Idrīs  Pit  Politics and the Qurʾān  Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān  Prophets and Prophethood  Psalms  Raqīm  Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān  Rhetoric and the Qurʾān  Trade and Commerce Tottoli, R.  Bowing and Prostration  Elijah  Elisha  Ezekiel  Korah  Men of the Cave  People of the Ditch  Raqīm  Rass  Shuʿayb  Sleep  ʿImrān  ʿĀd  Ṣāliḥ Tower of Babel see Babel TPA see Islam Traditionalists [muḥaddithūn]  Createdness of the Qurʾān Transjordan  Christians and Christianity  Syria Transoxania  Creeds  Deferral  Exe…


(554 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
Ancestor of the people of Israel ( Isrāʾīl), whose name appears most frequently in the Qurʾān within the title “ Children of Israel” (q.v.; Banū Isrāʾīl). Only in two places does it occur separately ( q 3:93; 19:58). The commentators identify Israel with Jacob (q.v.; Yaʿqūb), the son of Isaac (q.v.; Isḥāq). q 3:93, which deals with Jewish dietary restrictions (see jews and judaism ), makes allusion to a specific event in Israel's life. It ¶ is stated here that all food was lawful (see lawful and unlawful ) to the Children of Israel save what Israel forbade for himself before the Torah (q.v.) was…

Q (Qadarī(s) - Qurva)

(852 words)

Qadarī(s)  Ambiguous  Freedom and Predestination  Grace  Jews and Judaism  Left Hand and Right Hand  Moses  Philosophy and the Qurʾān  Witnessing and Testifying al-Qāḍī, W. see Kadi, W. al-Qāḍī, ʿA.  Printing of the Qurʾān al-Qāḍī, N.  Printing of the Qurʾān al-Qāḍī ʿAbd al-Jabbār see ʿAbd al-Jabbār b. Aḥmad al-Asadābādi al-Qāḍī al-Hamadhānī (d. 414-15/1025) Qāḍī Aḥmad  Manuscripts of the Qurʾān al-Qādir (r. 381-422/991-1031)  Creeds   Qādirī Creed [al-iʿtiqād al-qādirī]   Creeds  Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān al-Qādisiyya  Iraq  Sīra and the Qurʾān [al-Qāḍī] al-Nuʿmān (d. 363/974)  …

H (Hebrew - Horovitz, J.)

(823 words)

Hebrew   Language [ʿibrī/ʿibrānī]   Anointing   Chronology and the Qurʾān   Elijah   Foreign Vocabulary   Forgery   Gospel   Grammar and the Qurʾān   Idrīs   Illiteracy   Jacob   Jesus   Jinn   Language and Style of the Qurʾān   Laughter   Magians   Path or Way   People of the Book   Pilgrimage   Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies   Sacrifice   Signs   Spatial Relations   Speech   Torah   World   Yemen   People   Blasphemy   Consecration of Animals   Day, Times of   Luqmān   Trust and Patience   Rabbinical   Foreign Vocabulary   Psalms Hebron [Ḥabrūn]  Abra…
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