Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law

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Droit et technique des traités de commerce (Volume 3)

(72,598 words)

Author(s): Bon Boris Nolde, le
Bon Boris Nolde, le Keywords: International trade | Treaties | Mots clefs: Commerce international | Traités | ABSTRACT Boris Nolde begins his course on the Law and the Technique of Commercial Treaties with a history of commercial treaties, from the Middle Ages to Post First World War period. The author then studies the form of commercial treaties and the contracting parties in commercial treaties. The author also focuses on customs territories, the merchant, freedom of trade, conventional customs tariffs, the mos…

Les traités et le droit interne (Volume 38)

(25,349 words)

Author(s): Mestre, Achille
Mestre, Achille Keywords: Treaties | International law and domestic law | Mots clefs: Traités | Droit international et droit interne | ABSTRACT In this course, Achille Mestre discusses some aspects of the question of the relationship between treaties and domestic law, and, mainly from the point of view of French public law, examines what positive solutions have been given to the question of the powers of the national judge with respect to treaties. The author examines the following questions: under what conditions ca…

Des conflits entre principes abstraits et stipulations conventionnelles (Volume 48)

(25,324 words)

Author(s): Ray, Jean
Ray, Jean Keywords: Treaties | Public international law | Revision | Mots clefs: Traités | Droit international public | Révision | ABSTRACT History and especially the history of our time, presents to us a large number of cases in which certain clauses of treaties have been attacked, by a State related by them, in the name of certain principles of international law. In order to study this issue, Jean Ray starts with a study of certain diplomatic procedures related to the Oriental issue. He then studies a few affairs b…

Les travaux préparatoires et l’interprétation des traités (Volume 48)

(36,618 words)

Author(s): Lauterpacht, H.
Lauterpacht, H. Keywords: Treaties | Preparatory work | Interpretation | Mots clefs: Traités | Travaux préparatoires | Interprétation | ABSTRACT H. Lauterpacht, in the introduction of his course, writes that the study of the cases of interpretation of treaties by the international and national courts enable proving the utility of the various rules of interpretation, elaborated with care, which we encounter in the treaties of international law; it leads us to conclude on their less practical significance, he notes. …

La notion de réciprocité dans les traités diplomatiques de droit international privé (Volume 52)

(40,493 words)

Author(s): Niboyet, J.-P.
Niboyet, J.-P. Keywords: Reciprocity | Legal principles | Private international law | Treaties | Mots clefs: Réciprocité | Principes généraux du droit | Droit international privé | Traités | ABSTRACT The theme developed by J.-P. Niboyet in his course is the relations that exist or rather should exist between the general principles of civil law and the treaties which are, after all, just the contracts between the States. After outlining a few general considerations, the author examines the patterns of diplomatic reciprocity, …

Les accords internationaux concernant la double imposition et l’évasion fiscale (Volume 55)

(22,349 words)

Author(s): Bühler, Ottmar
Bühler, Ottmar Keywords: Double taxation | Treaties | Tax evasion | Mots clefs: Imposition (double) | Traités | Evasion fiscale | ABSTRACT Ottmar Buhler, in the introduction to this course, notes that the problems of tax law are due to a large number of states collecting taxes, multiplicity of the tax systems, and infinitely numerous and complicated economic relationships between countries. After a presentation of the different tax systems of the States of the world and economic relations between States giving rise t…

Les effets de la guerre sur les traités (Volume 59)

(18,426 words)

Author(s): D. Mc Nair, Arnold
D. Mc Nair, Arnold Keywords: Wars | Treaties | Mots clefs: Guerres | Traités | ABSTRACT Arnold Mc Nair proposes to dedicate his course to the research and collection of materials in the form of judgments and diplomatic controversies rather than the discussion of theories. After a historical overview and preliminary observations, he thus successively studies the different categories of treaties which can, besides, overlap: the treaties relating to permanent laws, the treaties conferring rights of extraterritoria…

Les accords régionaux et le droit international (Volume 71)

(35,385 words)

Author(s): M. Yepes, J.
M. Yepes, J. Keywords: Regionalism | Treaties | Mots clefs: Régionalisme | Traités | ABSTRACT When one of the founders of international law, Hugo Grotius, has written that very often the law of nations of one of the parties of the world is not that of others, he has only expressed an axiom which is daily confirmed by history, notes J.M. Yepes. Here is the axiom: there is an international law which is universal, necessary and common to all the civilized people; but besides this universal law, there are specific…

The Juridical Clauses of the Peace Treaties (Volume 73)

(41,078 words)

Author(s): G. Fitzmaurice, G.
G. Fitzmaurice, G. Keywords: World War II | Peace | Treaties | Mots clefs: Guerre mondiale de 1939 | Paix | Traités | ABSTRACT In his course on the Judicial Clauses of the Peace Treaties, G.G. Fitzmaurice refers to the peace treaties as the treaties signed with Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Finland and entered into force in 1947. After an introduction devoted to the peace treaties, the author examines the territorial clauses, the political clauses, the military clauses, economic clauses, financial clauses, and commercial clauses of the peace treaties. Dans son cours sur les …

The North Atlantic Treaty of 1949 (Volume 79)

(19,146 words)

Author(s): L. Goodhart, A.
L. Goodhart, A. Keywords: North Atlantic Treaty Organization | Treaties | Mots clefs: Organisation du Traité de l Atlantique Nord | Traité | ABSTRACT A. L. Goodhart writes in the introduction to his 1951 course that there is no doubt that the North Atlantic Treaty of 1949 is, from a practical point of view, the most important international agreement since the creation of the United Nations. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established and substantial investments have already been spent on the implement…

Les tendances internationales des constitutions modernes (Volume 80)

(21,642 words)

Author(s): De Visscher, Paul
De Visscher, Paul Keywords: Treaties | Constitutional law | International law and domestic law | Mots clefs: Traités | Droit constitutionnel | Droit international et droit interne | ABSTRACT Whether we want to see in actual practice the first manifestations of an international constitutional law or want to see in international law "national law for external use", it is clear today that internationalists can no longer ignore evolution. In this course, Paul De Visscher focuses on the most recent trends in the phenomenon of ha…

United Nations Treaty Practice (Volume 86)

(62,783 words)

Author(s): Rosenne, Shabtai
Rosenne, Shabtai Keywords: United Nations | Treaties | Mots clefs: Nations Unies | Traités | ABSTRACT The objective of the Shabtai Rosenne’s course is to study the United Nations Treaty Practice as an international organization with legal personality. The intention of the author is to assess the extent to which it has succeeded in adopting international treaty law despite its specificities and the heterogeneity of its members. The author successively examines the treaties established under the aegis of the Unit…

Treaty and Diplomatic Relations between European and South Asian Powers in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Volume 100)

(42,329 words)

Author(s): H. Alexandrowicz, Charles
H. Alexandrowicz, Charles Keywords: South Asia | Europe | Diplomacy | Treaties | Mots clefs: Asie du Sud | Europe | Diplomatie | Traités | ABSTRACT Charles Alexandrowicz begins his course on Treaties and Diplomatic Relations Between European and South Asian Powers in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries with a historic overview of the relations between Suzerain States and Vassal States. He then presents the controversy between Grotius and Freitas. He examines the treaties and the contexts in which they were signed. F…

Reservations to Treaties (Volume 103)

(36,513 words)

Author(s): W. Bishop, Jr., William
W. Bishop, Jr., William Keywords: Reservations | Treaties | Mots clefs: Réserves | Traités | ABSTRACT William Bishop devotes his course to Reservations to Treaties. After a definition of the concept of reservations in the introduction, the author examines the practice concerning acceptance of reservations in bilateral treaties and multilateral treaties. He also focuses on the distinction between reservation, interpretation, and declaration. He discusses the question of the reservation clauses, and then presents…

The Recent Concordats (Volume 104)

(21,186 words)

Author(s): Z. Ehler, Sidney
Z. Ehler, Sidney Keywords: Roman Catholic Church | Treaties | Pope | Mots clefs: Eglise | Traités | Pape | ABSTRACT According to Sidney Z. Ehler, a concordat is an international agreement between the Pope and a State relating to the legal situation of the Catholic Church of that state. The author begins his study with a presentation of the two parties to the concordat: the Pope and the State. He next examines the characteristics of the concordat as an international agreement, later examines the characteristics of th…

Constitutional Limitations in the Law of the European Organisations (Volume 108)

(40,720 words)

Author(s): J. Hahn, Hugo
J. Hahn, Hugo Keywords: Europe | International organizations | Competence | European Coal and Steel Community | European Economic Community | European Atomic Energy Community | Treaties | Community law | Mots clefs: Europe | Organisations internationales | Compétence | Communauté européenne du charbon et de l'acier | Communauté économique européenne | Communauté européenne de l'énergie atomique | Traités | Droit communautaire | ABSTRACT Hugo Hahn devotes his course to Constitutional Limitations in the Law of International Organizations. By constitution, it m…

Contribution a l’interprétation des traités (Volume 114)

(15,150 words)

Author(s): Berlia, G.
Berlia, G. Keywords: Interpretation | Treaties | Mots clefs: Interprétation | Traités | ABSTRACT The question of the interpretation of a legal act raises two main types of problems: the authority competent to interpret and the act to be interpreted. It is precisely the nature of the act to be interpreted, considers G. Berlia, as an essential element of his study. The author successively focuses on the true meaning of the terms "intention of the parties", the so-called clear act rule, the rule of useful effect…

L’interdépendance des conventions internationales du travail (Volume 121)

(36,623 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Francis
Wolf, Francis Keywords: International labour law | Treaties | Labor | Mots clefs: Droit international ouvrier | Traités | Travail | ABSTRACT Using an example of International Labor conventions and the standards based on conventions as an attempt to demonstrate the importance of the principle of the interdependence of international instruments, the author successively examines: how do International Labor Conventions complement and integrate each other; how are other interested international organizations involved in t…

La codification par traités en droit international privé dans le cadre de la Conférence de La Haye (Volume 122)

(30,182 words)

Author(s): H. Van Hoogstraten, M.
H. Van Hoogstraten, M. Keywords: Hague Conference on Private International Law | Private international law | Codification | Treaties | Mots clefs: Conférence de La Haye de droit international privé | Droit international privé | Codification | Traités | ABSTRACT The Hague Conference of Private International Law aims at working for the progressive unification of the rules of private international law (art.1 of the Statute). Just like the other international organizations, the Conference seeks to accomplish its task by concluding interna…

Un système de contrôle international: la mise en œuvre des conventions internationales du travail (Volume 123)

(33,843 words)

Author(s): Valticos, Nicolas
Valticos, Nicolas Keywords: International Labour Organization | International labour law | Treaties | International control | Labor | Mots clefs: Organisation internationale du travail | Droit international ouvrier | Traités | Contrôle international | Travail | ABSTRACT Head of the Department of International Labor Standards at the International Labor Office The examination of the system established for the control of application of international labor conventions presents a special interest for a series of reasons, writes Nicolas …
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