Encyclopaedia of Islam


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(7 words)

(a.),ʿAwrat (p., t.) pudendum; woman.


(414 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. “joyful”), the name ofthe favourite ( k̲h̲āṣṣekī) of the Ottoman Sulṭān Sulaimān I, the Legislator, better known in European historians by the name of Roxelana. She was a slave of Russian origin (“altra donna di nation Rossa, giovine non bella ma grassiada” in the report by Piero Bragadino [1526], Marini Sanuto, xli.), who was the mother of three sons, Sulṭān Selīm II, princes Murād and Muḥammad and one daughter, Mihrimāh Sulṭāne. She was anxious to secure the succession to the throne for her eldest son and is accused of having…

Autobiography, Urdu

(1,316 words)

Author(s): Oesterheld, Christina
The first Urdu autobiographies were written in the 1880s. (The term “autobiography” will be used here in a broad sense, for any kind of consistent autobiographical narrative, including reminiscences that cover only part of the narrator’s life.) These autobiographies engaged in various ways with the colonial situation and particularly with the events of 1857–8. In later autobiographies, the freedom struggle and India’s partition in 1947 came to figure prominently alongside more personal affairs and …
Date: 2021-07-19

Hudood Ordinances

(1,897 words)

Author(s): Masud, Muhammad Khalid
Hudood Ordinances refer to the legislation of penal laws in Pakistan entitled “Enforcement of Hudood Ordinances VI, VII, VIII and IX” on 10 February 1979, issued in English. In these ordinances, the “hudood” (Ar. pl. ḥudūd, penalties, sing. ḥadd) relate respectively to the offences of theft and robbery; adultery, rape and fornication ( zinā); false accusation (qazf/qadhf) of zinā; and punishment by whipping (; Council of Islamic Ideology 17–44). Ordinance IX, the last Ordinance, was enforced to provide the law required for the execution of the punishme…
Date: 2021-07-19


(2,240 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
Barzakh is a term used in Islam for an intermediate state of human existence between death and resurrection. 1. Barzakh in the Qurʾān and tafsīr In two verses in the Qurʾān (25:53, 55:20), barzakh (perhaps from Persian farsakh, a measure of distance; Jeffery, 77) means a barrier between two seas. It is from a third verse that the meaning of barzakh as an intermediate state between life in this world (al-dunyā) and the next world (al-ākhira) is derived: dead sinners plead with God to return them to life so that they can perform good deeds and thus regain His favour, but…
Date: 2021-07-19


(3,927 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, usually called Ḳod̲j̲a Miʿmār Sinān, the greatest architect of the Ottomans. Sinān came from Ḳaiṣarīya [q. v]. in Anatolia where he was born on the 9th Rad̲j̲ab 895 (April 15, 1589) the son of Christian Greeks. His father was later called ʿAbd al-Mennān but his real name is not known. His non-Turkish origin ( mühtedī) is beyond question and is never in dispute, either among his contemporaries or among all serious ¶ Turkish scholars. The young Sinān came into the Serai in Stambul with the levy of youths ( dews̲h̲irme, q. v.), became a Janissary, distingmshed himself in the campaigns…