Encyclopaedia of Islam


Your search for 'awrat' returned 2 results. Modify search

Did you mean: awras

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Autobiography, Urdu

(1,316 words)

Author(s): Oesterheld, Christina
The first Urdu autobiographies were written in the 1880s. (The term “autobiography” will be used here in a broad sense, for any kind of consistent autobiographical narrative, including reminiscences that cover only part of the narrator’s life.) These autobiographies engaged in various ways with the colonial situation and particularly with the events of 1857–8. In later autobiographies, the freedom struggle and India’s partition in 1947 came to figure prominently alongside more personal affairs and …
Date: 2021-07-19

Hudood Ordinances

(1,897 words)

Author(s): Masud, Muhammad Khalid
Hudood Ordinances refer to the legislation of penal laws in Pakistan entitled “Enforcement of Hudood Ordinances VI, VII, VIII and IX” on 10 February 1979, issued in English. In these ordinances, the “hudood” (Ar. pl. ḥudūd, penalties, sing. ḥadd) relate respectively to the offences of theft and robbery; adultery, rape and fornication ( zinā); false accusation (qazf/qadhf) of zinā; and punishment by whipping (; Council of Islamic Ideology 17–44). Ordinance IX, the last Ordinance, was enforced to provide the law required for the execution of the punishme…
Date: 2021-07-19