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(6,190 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt | Barth, Hans-Martin | Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich
1. Religious Aspects 1.1. General The term “prayer” has to do with a central fact in the divine-human relation, at the root of which is asking. Etymologically, Eng. “prayer” (unlike Ger. Gebet) goes back to OFr. preiere, “act of asking” or “demand,” and is akin to Lat. precaria, “a request.” These and related terms are probably related also to OEng. frignan, “inquire” (cf. Old Sax. fragon; Old Ger. pragan, frahen; Ger. fragen), and introduced in connection with Christianization for an act of the church ritual. The older theory that prayer developed out of magical sayings…


(1,074 words)

Author(s): Barth, Hans-Martin
1. Term The Reformation shaped the use of the German term Anfechtung, which is often translated as Eng. “temptation.” There is no clear equivalent for it in Hebrew, Greek, or Latin (which has tentatio and afflictio). Other modern languages lack an exact equivalent, and in everyday speech it is rarely used any longer in a religious connection. 1.1. In today’s humanistically oriented terminology, the term “temptation” (even more so Anfechtung) is inadequately characterized. It carries with it the sense of conflict, though this term is inadequate unless it relates s…