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Nerio

(459 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Deity of Sabine origin whose name in Antiquity was translated as virtus or ἀνδρία/ andría, ‘manliness’, and fortitudo, ‘strength’, ‘bravery’ (Gell. NA 13,23,7; Lydus, Mens. 4,60). Nerio is derived from Indoeuropean * ner-, ‘man-’, which is preserved in many Italian dialects, but was replaced in Latin by uir-, except in the personal names Nerio and Nero [1. 438f.]. It is an attractive hypothesis that M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus was thinking of the Sabine Nerio when dedicating anew the santuary of Honos outside the Porta Capena…

Vates

(519 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Lat. 'announcer' of vaticinationes, 'prophecies', which occur by means of divine inspiration and are, according to Cicero, part of the 'natural' divination (Cic. Div. 1,4; 1,34 et passim; Divination VII: ill. of the communication pattern); occasionally, however, representatives of the 'artificial' divination (Haruspices; Augures) are also called vates (such as Liv. 2,42,10). The vates speaks in verse ( canere since Enn. Ann. 207; carmina: Sall. Hist. 1,77,3 et passim) and is thus part of a general ancient tradition of prophetically inspired text p…

Phylakterion

(1,299 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (φυλακτήριον/ phylaktḗrion, literally 'means of protection') refers to a religious formula used to ask for protection (PGM VII 317f.) as well as to an amulet believed to offer safety, Latin amuletum (Char. 1,15; [1]). Since amulets were worn around the neck, head, arms and legs or attached to clothing, they were also called in Greek περιάμματα/ peri(h) ámmata or περίαπτα/ perí(h)apta (Plat. Resp. 426b; cf. Pind. Pyth. 3,52f.: peri(h)áptōn phármaka); in Latin, ligamenta or ligaturae (Aug. Serm. 4,36; cf. Cato Agr. 160: adligare), 'tied-on objects'. Here ancient …

Pudor

(165 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] As the social category of the human 'sense of shame', pudor is an element of Roman discourse on values from its earliest mention on (e.g. Plaut. Epid. 166). Yet only in the intensified moral discourses of the Augustan Period  - in imitation of the Greek a idṓs - does it come to the fore as an appellative and person. Amongst poets the mention of pudor can sometimes evoke Pudicitia (Serv. Auct. Aen. 4,27; Hor. Carm. saec. 57; [1. 89]). Admittedly, unlike the personification of female chastity, p udor was not formally worshipped. However, its combination with Copia, Fi…

Viriplaca

(180 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] V. is a goddess ( dea) of the city of Rome, recorded only in Val. Max. 2,1,6, whose small sanctuary ( sacellum) still stood on the Palatine at the time of Tiberius [II 1]: couples used to go there (but no longer in the time of Valerius Maximus) to resolve marriage difficulties by mutual exchange of their arguments. The name of the goddess was explained, entirely in the sense of a moralizing strategy by the author, with the etymology a placandis viris, 'from placating husbands'. With the aid of problematic 19th and 20th cent. religious and evolutionist categori…

Mundus

(835 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)

Septemviri

(465 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] ('College of seven men'). Founded at Rome in 196 BC by resolution of the people, initially as a college of three men (Liv. 33,42,1), later (perhaps under L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla) enlarged to seven, and finally, by Caesar, to ten members (Cass. Dio 43,51,9), the Roman urban priestly college known as the tresviri, later septemviri epulonum (e.g. InscrIt 13,2 p. 114 f.) or epulones ( epulo ; e.g. Liv. 33,42,1; Paul. Fest. 68 L.), took its name from its arrangement of the Iovis epulum , the sacrificial banquet ( ludorum epulare sacrificium: Cic. De or. 3,73) for Jupiter, …

Pythioi

(195 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Πύθιοι/ Pýthioi). In the political organization of Sparta - according to tradition established by Lycurgus [4] - each of the two Spartan kings chose two ambassadors which were dispatched to obtain the oracles of Apollo Pythios in Delphi. In the Greek poleis, these ambassadors were usually called theoprópoi or theōroí; the name Pýthioi at Sparta thus reflects a special relationship between this polis and the Delphic oracle. The Pýthioi were allowed to dine in the skēnḕ dēmosía - at the expense of the dḗmos - as fellows in the kings' tent ( sýskēnoi) and at their table ( sýssit…

Pantheus

(1,113 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
(Πάνθεος/ Pántheos, Πάνθειος/ Pántheios, Lat. Pantheus). In antiquity, P. ('all-god' or 'universal deity') referred (Auson. Epigrammata 32 Green; CGL V 318,38) to a deity which, within a differentiated polytheistic system, combined in itself the attributes, traits and identities of several or all gods (syncretism). [German version] I. Ancient concepts of a universal god In Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome, gods were structured into a hierarchic pantheon [1. 107-113; 177-…

Moles Martis

(151 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Mentioned in the Republican libri sacerdotum as an addressee of prayers (Gell. NA 13,23,2). In the Augustean period, the MM received a supplicatio every 12 May (Feriale Cumanum, InscrIt 13,2, p. 279). This supplication is connected with the natalis templi of the sanctuary of Mars Ultor in the Forum Augustum and with the ludi for Mars on the same day (Mars I.C.). The compound moles belli, ‘the dangers’ or ‘privations of war’, inspired by the mṓlos Árēos (since Hom. Il. 2,401), is present in Roma…

Tritopatores

(155 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] (Τριτοπάτορες/ Tritopátores, also Τριτοπατρεῖς/ Tritopatreîs). The cultically worshipped ancestors - usually as a collective, but also individually (Τριτοπάτωρ/ Tritopátōr: IDélos 1,66) - of a particular social group. Cults of the T. of a pólis , of demes ( dêmos [2]), phratríai or génē (Family, IV. A. 3.) are recorded in Attica and on Attic-influenced Delos, in Selinus [4], Troezen and Cyrene. Several local inscriptional texts, primarily including a lex sacra from Selinus, give information about their cultic status. Philochorus (FGrH 328 F 182) in…

Rex sacrorum

(1,144 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] In literature also rex sacrificulus (e.g. Liv. 2,2,1), 'king of the sacrifice', or simply rex (e.g. Varro Ling. 6,12 f.). The great age of this Roman priesthood is evident from the requirement that the rex sacrorum belong to a patrician gens (Cic. Dom. 38; Liv. 6,41,9; exception: MRR 1,284 n. 8), be born of a marriage concluded by confarreatio , and he himself be married by that ritual (Gai. Inst. 1,112). The rex sacrorum was nominated by the pontifical college, and, after being elected, inaugurated into the comitia calata (Antistius Labeo fr. 22 Huschke in Gell. NA …

Saxanus

(225 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] ( Saxsanus, also Saxsetanus). Epithet, primarily of Hercules. The name derives from Latin saxum, 'rock, stone'; Hercules S. was worshipped in the context of individual Italic or provincial Roman quarrying regions. The beginning of the worship of Hercules S. dates back to before the second half of the 1st century AD in central Italy (Tibur: CIL XIV 3543, the restoration of an older sanctuary in the Flavian period as a terminus ante quem), less likely in upper Italy (CIL V 5013). From Italy, the cult presumably …

Patrii di

(911 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] The patrii di (Greek θεοὶ πάτριοι/ theoì pátrioi or θεοὶ πατρῷοι/ theoì patrôioi, theoí pátrioi ) were not a fixed category of Roman religious law, but represented an indigenous attempt to classify religious plurality in terms of the traditionalistic scheme typical of ancient religion: that of in-group/out-group. The 'gods of the fathers' gained some of their legitimacy from the fact that the ancestors were already worshipping them in accordance with the traditional value system (Latin patrii mores ritusque; Greek pátrioi nómoi). Therefore, patrii di can refer t…

Mena

(117 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] According to Varro, Antiquitates rerum divinarum fragments 95 and 273 Cardauns (in Aug. Civ. 7,2-3; cf. ibid. 4,11), a daughter of Jupiter; se was the Roman goddess of menstruation. M., recorded nowhere else, seems to be patterned on the Greek μήνη/ mḗnē, ‘Moon (personified as Mḗnē/ Sēlēnē ), or the linguistically and connotatively related Greek μήν/ mēn, Latin mēnsis, ‘(lunar) month’, and continues the customary association of menstruation with the monthly cycle and the influence of the moon. M.…

Novensides, Di.

(514 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] A group of deities whose worship is reflected in the inscriptions of Marruvium (Vetter no. 225 = [1. 43-47 no. 36]: esos nouesede, 3rd cent. BC) and Pisaurum (CIL XI 6297 = ILLRP 20: deiu no[ u] esede, 3rd/2nd cents. BC). Calpurnius Piso (fr. 45 HRR = 35 Forsythe) claims the origin and cult of the Di Novensides lie in the Sabine town of Trebula Mutuesca. Together with the Di Indigetes (see below) and other divinities the Di Novensides (as divi Novensiles; the ending in -ilis is probably secondary) are invoked in the devotional formula of P. Decius [I 1] Mus in 340 BC (Liv. 8,9,4-8); the wording of this invocation is an annalistic construct [2. 156f.; 3. 484-486], with Calpurnius Piso as a possible source [4. 331f.]. Since the 2nd cent. BC the exact identity of the Di Novensides has been uncertain (doxography: Arnob. 3,38f.). From Lat. novus, 'new', the Di Novensides supposedly were divinities newly admitted to the Roman Pantheon (L. Cincius fr. 22 GRF = Cincius Alimentus fr. 12 Chassignet) or divinities of renewal (Cornificius, De etymis deorum fr. 8 GRF). From Lat.

Patera, Patella

(372 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] The patera was a flat, round dish without a handle, decorated from time to time, with a bulge ( omphalós) in the middle (like the Greek phiálē : [1. 42-44]) that was used as a drinking vessel (Plaut. Amph. 260; Prop. 4,6,85) and as a sacrificial bowl in the Roman cultural area (Varro, Ling. 5,122; fig. see Sacrifice IV.): from the patera, the person offering up the sacrifice poured the libatio, the drink offering, especially the sacrifice of wine (libation and wine consumption: Verg. Aen. 1,728-740); it was a…

Sagmen

(69 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)

Manalis lapis

(296 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] The object and function were already obsolete in the 1st cent. BC, and therefore required explanation. Paul Fest. 115…

Lua

(389 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt)
[German version] Goddess probably of Italian (Sabin.: [4. 166, 186]) origin. In 167 BC, after the victory over Perseus of Macedonia, L. Aemilius [I-32] Paullus burnt the weapons of the enemies for her and other deities (Liv. 45,33,1f.: L. mater; 8,1,6, L. mater as the addressee of a weapon-burning in 341 BC is presumably an annalistic fiction). The choice of the goddess may be explained by the derivation of her name from Latin luere: the weapon-burning after a successful…
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