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Boeotia, Boeotians

(1,481 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Βοιωτία, Βοιωτοί; Boiōtía, Boiōtoi). [German version] A. Topography Region and people in south-eastern Central Greece; with c. 2,500 km2 almost as large as  Attica. Bounded in the south-west by the Corinthian Gulf and in the north-east and east by the Euboean Gulf, B. is the only land bridge between northern and southern Greece and was thus a battleground over and over again ( Chaeronea,  Coronea,  Plataeae). In the south the  Parnes and the  Cithaeron formed a natural border with Attica and Megaris, while in t…

Dirce

(224 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δίρκη; Dírkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ismenus Daughter of Ismenus (Callim. H. 4,75ff.), wife of king  Lycus. Both are hostile to Lycus' niece  Antiope [2]; after Antiope had failed in her attempt to escape, D. and Lycus handed her over to her twin sons  Amphion and Zethus, whom she had abandoned at birth, to have her dragged to death by a bull. However, the sons recognize their mother just in time and then proceed to make D. suffer that very punishment (Eur. in Hyg. Fab. 7f.; Plaut. Pseud. 19…

Hippocrene

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱπποκρήνη; Hippokrḗnē, Ἵππου κρήνη; Híppou krḗnē, ‘horse spring’; on the names, see [5. 1853]). A well, modern Kriopigadhi, below the eastern peak of the  Helicon to the west of the chapel of Agios Ilias which is built from ancient re-used architectural fragments [1. 186f.; 2. 239f.; 3. 97-99; 4. 621-624]. Documented as early as in Hes. Theog. 1ff. as a place of the Muses and poetic inspiration. From the Hellenistic period, the creation of the well was put down to a kick from the hoof…

Gargaphia

(70 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Γαργαφία; Gargaphía). Source fountain near  Plataeae, from which the Greek army drew water before the battle in 479 BC until it was filled in by the Persians (Hdt. 9,25,2; 49,2-51,1; 52; Paus. 9,4,3; Plin. HN 4,25); located by [2. 557; 3. 113-115]; regarding G.'s identification as the place where  Actaeon surprised Artemis while bathing [1. 757]. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Bölte, s.v. G. 2), RE 7, 757 2 Müller 3 Pritchett, 1.

Eilesium

(83 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Εἰλέσιον, Εἱλέσιον, Εἰρεσίαι, Εἰρέσιον, Ἐρέσιον; Eilésion, Heilésion, Eiresíai, Eirésion, Erésion; on the names: [2. 106f.]). City mentioned already by Homer (Il. 2,499; H. in Apollinem 32) in the south-east of Boeotia near modern Asopia (formerly: Khlembotsari) [1. 127-130]; a description of the ancient remnants (with a different identification) also in [2. 91]. Sources: Str. 9,2,17; Plin. HN 4,26; Dionysius Kalliphontos 90; EM s.v. Εἰρέσιον; Suda s.v. Ἐρέσιον; Steph. Byz. s.v. Εἰλέσιον. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey 2 P. W. Wallace, St…

Eleusis

(1,171 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Attic Paralia deme of the phyle Hippothontis This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Linear B | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Peloponnesian War | Attica | Attica | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ἐλευσίς; Eleusís, mod. Elefsina). Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) [German version] A. Location Attic Paralia deme of the phyle Hippothontis with urban character, 11 (?) bouleutai, c. 21 km west of  Athens [1] on a low coastal hill range west of Thriasia, whose north-western summit with Hellenistic fortress and…

Erythrae

(596 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Engelmann, Helmut (Cologne)
(Ἐρυθραί; Erythraí). [German version] [1] Boeot. city This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Boeotian city mentioned as early as Hom. Il. 2,499 (Plin. HN 4,26; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.) on the northern slope of the  Cithaeron range east of Plataeae and Hysiae. Other references: Eur. Bacch. 751; Thuc. 3,24,2; Xen. Hell. 5,4,49; Paus. 9,2,1. According to Str. 9,2,12 mother city of the Ionian E. [2]. Before the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) the Persian camp stretched along the Asopus from E. over …

Lebadea

(917 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεβάδεια, Λεπάδεια; Lebádeia, Lepádeia). Boeotian city on the south-west end of a bay in a plain which spreads out towards the north-east to the western shore of the former Lake Copais and which encroaches on the northern side of the Helicon [1]. L. lay immediately at the exit of a narrow rock canyon from which the river Hercyna emerges, which is fed by additional rich springs, some of them warm, nea…

Cytenium

(230 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κυτίνιον, Κύτινον, Κυτένιον; Kytínion, Kýtinon, Kyténion). Along with Boium, Erineus and Acyphas/Pindus one of the cities of central Greek Doris supposedly founded by  Dorus (Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6; Conon, FGrH 26 F 1,27; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Aristid. 12,40; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κύτινα; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121; 126). Aeschin. Leg. 116 with schol. emphasizes the special status of C. among the Dorian cities; for Hsch. s.v. Λιμοδωριεῖς (‘hungry Dorians’) see  Doris [II 1]. C. is to be located on the southern slope…

Doris

(518 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δωρίς; Dōrís). [German version] I. Personal names Feminine shortened version of the name Eúdōros and similar, likely often understood as ‘the giver’ (cf. dōron, ‘Gift’). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 1] One of the Oceanids, mother of the Nereids One of the  Oceanids, the daughters of Oceanus and of Tethys (Hes. Theog. 350); cf. Polydore and Eudore in Hes. Theog. 354; 360 and the ‘Dorids’ in Goethe's ‘Faust’. Wife of Nereus, mother of the 50  Nereids (Hes. Theog. 241; Apollod. 1,11; Ov. Met. 2,11; 269). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Nereus, one of th…

Halae

(855 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἁλαί; Halaí). ‘Salt pans’, name of several settlements, in Attica of two demes. [German version] [1] Att. deme of the phyle Cecropis H. Aixonides (Ἁλαὶ Αἰξωνίδες; Halaì Aixōnídes), Attic deme, which constituted together with Aexone the paralia trittys of the phyle Cecropis. Therefore, (only administratively? [3. 148476]) distinguished by ‘Aixonides’ from H. [2] on the east coast of Attica. H. provided six (ten)   bouleutaí . H. (modern Voula and Vouliagmeni [7. 466 fig. 588]) bordered in the north on Aexone (modern Glyphada) and in the…

Mycalessus

(226 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Μυκαλησσός; Mykalēssós). Town named in Hom. Il. 2,498 and Hom. H. Apollo 222-224 in northeast Boeotia on the road from Thebae to Chalcis [1] and to the south of the Aniforitis pass near present-day Rhitsona. References: Str. 9,2,11; 26; Stat. Theb. 7,272; 9,281; Nonnus. Dion. 13,77f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. A few wall remains [1] and a large necropolis used from the Geometric to the Hellenistic periods [2] testify to its heyday in…

Midea

(306 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Μίδεια; Mídeia or Μιδέα; Midéa). [German version] [1] City in Argolis This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Mineral Resources City in Argolis, in mythology (cf. Paus. 2,16; 25) one of the most important cities in the region. It had a Mycenaean citadel and palace on a steep hill about 1 km from modern Dendra in the northeast of the Argolian plain. Already abandoned in the Mycenaean period. Tholos tombs with rich finds, several burial chambers. New excavations started in 1983. Th…

Hoplites

(101 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ὁπλίτης; Hoplítēs). [German version] [1] Town north-east of Sparta Town north-east of Sparta (Pol. 16,16,2), possibly named (‘warrior’) after the archaic cult statue of Apollo in nearby Thornax. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius 2, 1967, 521. [German version] [2] Small river in Boeotia Small river in Boeotia, whose localization near Haliartus or Coronea was already disputed in antiquity; associated with an oracle on the death of Lysander (Plut. Lysander 29,3ff.; Mor. 408A-B). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.…

Alalcomenae

(256 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀλαλκομεναί; Alalkomenaí). [German version] [1] Small Boeotian city Small Boeotian city on the southern edge of the former Lake  Copais, between  Haliartus and  Coronea at the foot of a low mountain, with the famous  Athena sanctuary on the plain by the Triton stream (birthplace of Athena), in direct proximity to the sanctuary of Athena Itonia. A. likely lay to the north below what is today Solinarion; the Athena sanctuary was either north-east near the church Agios Ioannis or north-west near Ajia Para…

Permessus

(169 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Περμησσός/ Permēssós; for different forms of the name [1. 869]). River mentioned as early as in Hes. Theog. 5, rising in the Helicon [1]; located variously by later ancient authors. Whereas according to Strabo (9,2,19; 9,2,30) the P. flowed into Lake Copais near Haliartus and hence - with reference to [2. 212f.] - is identified e.g. by [1] with the stream Zagora (modern Evangelistria), the rest of the ancient literary tradition (e.g. Nic. Ther. 12; Orph. A. 124; Prop. 2,10,26; Ver…

Hylice

(66 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὑλικὴ λίμνη; Hylikḕ límnē). Boeotian lake west of the Copais, north of Thebes (Str. 9,2,20). Probably the lake formerly called Likeri, and H. again today [2. 494f.; 3. 81f.]. Referring to Nicander (Theriaka 887ff.), Fossey [1. 225-229] identifies H. with the more northerly modern Lake Paralimni, usually equated with the ancient Trephia. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey 2 Philippson/Kirsten 1,2 3 P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979.

Chalia

(65 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Χαλία; Chalía). Town on the east coast of Boeotia, to be localized either north-west of Chalcis near the modern Drosia (into the 20th cent. known as τὰ Χαλία) [1. 78], or in the vicinity of Aulis [2. 215]. Involved in a territorial dispute with Chalcis: Theopompus, FGrH 115 F 211f.; dating uncertain. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey, 77-78. 2 C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862.

Peteon

(108 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Πετεών; Peteṓn). Boeotian city mentioned in the Homeric Catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,500; after this, all later mentions compiled in [1. 1128; 3. 265]); a settlement belonging to Thebes from the Classical period onwards, situated on the road from Thebes to Anthedon (Str. 9,2,26); its location has been pinpointed as being on the western slope of Messapium near modern Muriki [1. 1129f.] or somewhat further north near Platanakia [2. 233f.] or near Skala Paralimnis on the south-eastern bank of Lake Paralimni [4. 107]. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Kirs…

Arethusa

(416 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Ἀρέθουσα; Aréthousa). Frequent name for springs. [German version] [1] Spring on Homer's Ithaca Spring on Homer's  Ithaca, where the swine of  Eumaeus graze (Hom. Od. 13,408; Plut. Mor. 776 E; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.). To identify A. with the spring of Perapigadi on the modern Ithaka, 5 km south-east of Vathy, is speculative. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography A. Heubeck, A commentary on Homer's Odyssey, 1992, 189 f. A. J. Wace, F. H. Stubbings, A companion to Homer, 1963, 414-416. [German version] [2] Name for the main spring of Chalkis on Euboia The name handed down by numerou…
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