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(848 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
Der Herrschaftsbereich der mesoamerikan. A. erstreckte sich am Ende des 15. Jh.s vom Pazifischen Ozean bis zum Golf von Mexiko und stellte daher das erste Großreich auf dem amerikan. Kontinent dar, mit dem die span. Konquistadoren 1519 in Berührung kamen (Reiche, außereuropäische; Kulturkontakt). Die in Bilderhandschriften und späteren Aufzeichnungen mündlicher Traditionen erhaltenen Wandersagen der Mexica erzählen von der noch jungen Geschichte dieser Nahuatl sprechenden, von Norden her eingewanderten Volksgruppe. Ihre entbehrungsreichen Wanderun…
Date: 2019-11-19


(1,157 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. Throughout the world, water appears as the fundamental and original element of the world and life (cf. Earth, Fire, Wind), and thus plays an important role in religious protologies. In the form of a primordial ocean or subterranean lakes, cosmogonic myths describe it as a created or already preexistent original substance. From an anthropological perspective, other fluids or “humors” can also be distinguished as constitutive of the human being. The vital importance of water, its purifying power, but also its threatening aspects ¶ (floods, tidal waves, massive r…

Endo, Shusako

(193 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1923, Tokyo – Sep 29, 1996, Tokyo), internationally known and much celebrated Japanese author. From his youth, he felt “foreign” in his homeland because of his Catholic faith and desired also in his writing to bridge the cleft, painful for him, between his Christian “garment” and his Japanese “body.” The struggle for an authentic inculturation of the gospel in the Japanese spirit and context finds particular expression in his most famous novel Silence (Jap. Chinmoku, 1966), set in the time of the 17th-century Japanese …

Missio Dei

(325 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] Missio Dei, “mission of God,” was introduced into the discussion by K. Hartenstein; the term advanced after the missions conference in Willingen (1952, Mission Conferences, German) and soon became a central concept in the theology of mission. In spite of many different emphases, it implies a new Trinitarian foundation for the understanding of missions (cf. opera and missiones in the context of the “economic Trinity”). For, in distinction to ecclesiocentric mission concepts, the Triune God is to be understood as the real “subject” of mis…

Scientology, Church of

(664 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. In a series of organizations that followed each other in hectic succession, Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (Mar 13, 1911 – Jan 24, 1986) sought to capitalize on the unexpected boom of autonomous Dianetics groups that followed upon his self-help bestseller Dianetics, published in 1950, and preceded the Church of Scientology ¶ (as it began calling itself in 1954, initially in California; later Church of Scientology International). The name reflects Hubbard’s expansion of Dianetics “therapy” to a comprehensive philosophy of salvation with the programmatic label Sciento…


(940 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[English Version] Wasser, religionsgeschichtlich. I. W. erscheint weltweit als fundamentales und urspr. Element der Welt und des Lebens (vgl. Erde, Feuer, Wind) und spielt daher in rel. Protologien eine wichtige Rolle. In Gestalt eines Urmeeres oder unterirdischer Seen wird es in kosmogonischen Mythen als eine geschaffene oder bereits vor aller Zeit existente Ursubstanz angesprochen. Anthropologisch können weitere, den Menschen konstituierende »Säfte« unterschieden werden. Die lebenswichtige Bedeutu…


(242 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[English Version] Versiegelung, religionsgeschichtlich. Dokumente und Eigentumssachen werden durch Siegel geschützt. Die V. soll vor unberechtigter Aneignung oder Einsicht bewahren, sie sichert Authentizität sowie Autorität des Siegelnden (Absenders, Besitzers) mit symbolischer Macht. Die profan-rechtliche Bedeutung begründet die häufig bezeugten rel. Bezugnahmen auf V. So können z.B. Tätowierungen (Tatauierung) oder Amulette ihre Träger der numinosen Macht- und Schutzsphäre einer Gottheit überstel…


(283 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] Documents and personal property are protected by seals (Seal/Stamp). Sealing is designed to protect against unauthorized appropriation or access; it protects the authenticity and authority of the person affixing the seal (sender, owner) with symbolic power. The meaning of sealing in secular legal usage provides the background for the many references to sealing in religious contexts. Tatoos and amulets, for example, place their bearers in the numinous protective sphere of a deity o…

Scientology Church

(539 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[English Version] . I. Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (13.3.1911–24.1.1986) suchte in mehreren, sich hektisch ablösenden Organisationen dem unerwarteten Boom autonomer Dianetikgruppen Herr zu werden, die seinem 1950 veröff. Selbsthilfe-Bestseller »Dianetics« folgten. Diese gingen der »Church of Scientology« (CS, Selbstbez. seit 1954, zuerst in Kalifornien; später mit Zusatz »international«, CSI) voraus. Der Name spiegelt Hubbards Erweiterung der Dianetik-»Therapie« zu einer umfassenden weltanschaulichen …


(2,690 words)

Author(s): Kummels, Ingrid | Grünschloß, Andreas
1. Introduction The Maya is the name given to speakers of the largest indigenous language family in Mesoamerica, who now number 8 million, and to the archaeological cultures in their settlement region. They already inhabited this region in pre-Columbian times, in what is now southern Mexico (Yucatán Peninsula and Chiapas), Belize, Guatemala, western Honduras, and El Salvador. It encompasses the karstic northern lowlands of Yucatán, the hot and humid southern Petén Basin, the highlands o…
Date: 2019-10-14

American indigenous peoples

(6,755 words)

Author(s): Kummels, Ingrid | Grünschloß, Andreas
1. Terminology and methodological approach When the first Europeans were about to set foot on the dual landmass of the Americas the continent was home to an estimated number of 40 or 50 million people, who were characterized by an extraordinary diversity of population density, languages [3. 94] and cultures as well of social, economic and political organization [4]. They ranged from seasonally foraging hunters and gatherers led by informally chosen chiefs to sedentary farmers integrated in comprehensive political systems which included urban centers an…
Date: 2019-10-14


(5,704 words)

Author(s): Kummels, Ingrid | Grünschloß, Andreas
1. Begriff und methodischer ZugangUnmittelbar vor der Ankunft der Europäer lebten auf dem amerikan. Doppelkontinent schätzungsweise 40 bis 50 Mio. Menschen, die in Bevölkerungsgröße, Sprache [3. 94] und Kultur sowie sozialer, wirtschaftlicher und politischer Organisation außerordentlich divers waren [4]. Das Spektrum reichte von saisonal umherziehenden Jägern und Sammlern mit informeller politischer Führerschaft bis hin zu ansässigen Bauern, die in übergreifende politische Systeme mit urbanen Zentren und Klassenschichtung integrier…
Date: 2019-11-19

Great Commission, The

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Frankemölle, Hubert | Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. I. New Testament – II. Missiology I. New Testament Matt. 28:16–20 is often called the Great Commission. The text is a manifesto summarizing the en…

Original State

(3,622 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Arneth, Martin | Dietz, Walter R.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies Myths of an original state are usually associated with cosmogonic and anthropogonic (Anthropogony) myths concerning the origins of the world, life, animals, and human beings, for the original state refers to a primal age (Protology) before all time, falling between creation and history. Many religious traditions describe a harmonious, even paradisal eon when humans or (sometimes theriomorphic) protohumans were “still” in d…


(3,118 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Arneth, Martin | Dietz, Walter R.
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich …


(2,942 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Bultmann, Christoph | Feldmeier, Reinhard | Feldtkeller, Andreas | Grözinger, Albrecht
[German Version] I. Religious Studies From the outset, religions are involved in processes of exchange with their (religious) environment. This structural relationship to the surrounding world finds expression in internal representations of what is “strange/alien/foreign” or “other” and is part of the self-reference of religious systems. Because other religions are often experienced as competing entities, in most traditions they represent a great challenge to the adherents’ own identity. Therefore re…


(7,317 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Liess, Kathrin | Zumstein, Jean | Sparn, Walter | Gander, Hans-Helmuth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Fundamental Theology and Dogmatics – IV. Philosophy – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Natural Sciences – VII. Ethics I. Religious Studies Religious ideas and rituals focus fundamentally on life in this world and the next …

Life Cycle

(2,663 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Wagner-Rau, Ulrike | Preul, Reiner | Goldberg, Sylvie Anne | Michaels, Axel
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Practical Theology – III. Ethics (Phases of Maturation) – IV. Judaism – V. Hinduism I. Religious Studies In almost all cultures and religions, a person apparently experiences his life not only as a straight line, but more as cyclically sequenced, more-or-less discontinuous phases with varied social status and role claims. The transition bet…
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