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Praeses

(159 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (literally: 'chairman/president') initially used in 2nd and 3rd cents. AD as a special honorific Latin title for governors, later becoming established in official usage for an equestrian procurator . Subsequently, in the wake of the administrative reorganization under Diocletian and Constantine [1] I, it became a special title for the lowest group of provincial governors after the consularis and corrector , esp. in the many newly created small provinces. The ranking hierarchy, however, was subject to changes. In the Notitia dignitatum , 40 praesides are mentio…

Thermantia

(154 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Mother of Theodosius [II 2] I, 4th cent. AD Mother of Theodosius [II 2] I; died before AD 389/391. PLRE 1, 909 no. 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Niece of Theodosius [II 2] I, c. AD 400 Granddaughter of T. [1], adopted, with her sister Serena, into the family of her uncle Theodosius [II 2] the Great before AD 384 and treated as an adopted daughter (Claud., Laus Serenae 105-109; 118; 187; Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 48,1); married to a high-ranking officer. PLRE 1, 909 no. 2. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [3…

Flacilla

(97 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Aelia Flavia F. First wife of the emperor Theodosius I; three children were born of the marriage contracted in c. AD 376: the later emperors  Arcadius and  Honorius as well as  Pulcheria. In 379 F. was appointed Augusta. The committed supporter of Nicene Christianity (Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,6; Theod. Hist. eccl. 5,19) was considered pious and charitable. When she died in 386 in Skotumis (Thrace), Gregorius [2] of Nyssa held the funerary oration (PG 46, 877-892). Her statue was erected in the Senate building (Them. Or. 19,228b). PLRE 1, 341f. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Fr…

Helpidius

(274 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Vicarius urbis Romae, 321-324 AD In AD 321-324 vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 2,8,1; 16,2,5; 13,5,4; Cod. Iust. 8,10,6 calls him agens vicem praefectorum praetorio). In 329 he was still the recipient of laws (Cod. Theod. 9,21,4; 13,5,4); as such a long period in office as a vicarius would have been unusual, we should assume that he held a higher office in the meantime, perhaps that he was praefectus praetorio Italiae. PLRE 1, 413 (H. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Claudius H. Praefectus praetorio Orientis 360-361 AD Paphlagon…

Palatini

(386 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The term 'palatini' was used since the 4th cent. AD as a designation for those serving in a military or civil capacity at court ( palatium) or in close association with it. Among the palatini of the militia armata were the soldiers of the scholae palatinae and also those of the elite troops first attested in 365, but probably already separated from the comitatenses around 320. We know from the notitia dignitatum of 157 units of palatini, most of whom came under the jurisdiction of the magistri militum praesentales ( magister militum ); however, in the…

Magister officiorum

(1,248 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A. Origin of the office An office of late antiquity created by Constantinus [1] I, which was among the highest in the Roman empire (Not. Dign. Or. 11; Not. Dign. Occ. 9), attested for the first time in AD 320 (Cod. Theod. 16,10,1). The great imperial chancelleries ( scrinium ) of the magister memoriae, magister epistularum and magister libellorum and lesser palace officials, such as admissionales, interpretes, mensores ( mensor ), decani ( decanius ), stratores, cursores, lampadarii , and notarii ( notarius ) were first of all probably mandated to the magister officiorum

Minervius

(112 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Consul before AD 370/1 Consular before AD 370/1; at this time a member of a Senate deputation to the court of Valentinianus I, protesting against the use of torture on senators; possibly the M. of Trier mentioned by Symmachus (ep. 4,30) ( Augusta Treverorum). PLRE 1, 603, 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Official, around AD 395 Possibly a son of M. [1]. probably magister epistularum in AD 394/5, thereafter active in Gaul; comes rerum privatarum in 397/8, comes sacrarum largitionum in 398/9; addressee of several letters of S…

Promotus

(105 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius P., possibly comes Africae before AD 386, magister militum 386-391; defeated the Greuthungi in the lower reaches of the Danube as magister peditum per Thracias in 386; magister equitum 388-391. P. led the cavalry against Magnus Maximus [II 7] in 388, became consul in 389 and extricated Theodosius I [II 2] from a difficult military position in 391. A fierce conflict with Rufinus [II 3] led to fighting in the consistorium and, in 391, probably also to P.' death in Thrace in an ambush allegedly instigated by Rufinus. His tw…

Princeps castrorum

(79 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] PC peregrinorum or princeps peregrinorum was the designation of the highest-ranking centurio in the frumentarii stationed at Rome in the castra peregrina. Until the late 2nd cent. AD, the PC had no further opportunity for promotion, but from the 3rd cent. on, he could attain the highest offices of state (governor, praefectus praetorio ) (Cass. Dio 78,14; CIL VIII 2529; ILS 1372). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography A. von Domaszewski, Die Rangordnung des römischen Heeres, 21967.

Iustina

(145 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman empress, married in a second marriage to  Valentinianus I, mother of Valentinianus II. Other children: Iusta, Grata, Galla [2]. She supported the Arian line of belief and is said to have backed the Milan ecclesiastical conflict with  Ambrosius of AD 385/86. This concerned the use of a church by the Arians, but it seems unlikely that she would have been able to pursue this alone [1. 170-173]. In any case this episode has resulted up to the present day in a negative image of I…

Timasius

(168 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius T., an officer under Valens [2], in AD 385 cos., in 386 comes et magister equitum, 388-395 magister equitum et peditum, and in 388 he led the infantry in a war with Maximus [II 7]. He took part in the conflicts between Theodosius [II 2] and Ambrosius over the synagogue in Callinicum, which had been destroyed by Christians. In 389, T. was cos. II. In 391, when he had to fight bands of Goths in Thrace, he came into conflict with Rufinus [II 3] and shortly afterwards fell into disgrace. In 394, however, he was commander-in-chief with Stil…

Magnentius

(353 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius Magnus M., usurper, Roman emperor, AD 350-353. Born in Amiens c. 303, of non-Roman origin, not Christian. M. entered a military career and made it to the rank of comes . The comes rerum privatarum Marcellinus [5] incited him to conspire against Constans [1]: On 18 January 350, M. revolted in Autun (Aur. Vict. 42; Zos. 2,42); Constans was killed. By the end of February, M. was recognized as emperor in northern Italy, and thereafter in the entire West and in Africa as well. In the Danube reg…

Remigius

(65 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Aus Mogontiacum (Mainz), 355 n. Chr. rationarius des mag. militum Silvanus in Gallien, ca. 365-371 mag. officiorum Valentinianus' I.; er deckte in dieser Zeit die Machenschaften seines Schwagers Romanus in Africa. Dies und die Usurpation des Mauren Firmus [3] führten zu seiner Ablösung. 373 erhängte sich R., als seine Verfehlungen aufgedeckt wurden. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Clauss 186 f.  PLRE 1, 763.

Minervius

(100 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] [1] Consul vor 370/1 n.Chr Consular vor 370/1 n.Chr.; zu dieser Zeit Mitglied einer Senatsgesandtschaft an den Hof Valentinianus' I., um gegen den Einsatz der Folter bei Senatoren zu protestieren; vielleicht der bei Symmachus (ep. 4,30) erwähnte M. aus Trier (Augusta Treverorum). PLRE 1, 603, 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [English version] [2] Amtsträger, um 395 n.Chr. Vielleicht Sohn von M. [1]. 394/5 n.Chr. wohl magister epistularum, dann in Gallien tätig; 397/8 comes rerum privatarum, 398/9 comes sacrarum largitionum; Adressat mehrere…

Mascezel

(75 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Christ, Sohn des Maurenkönigs Nubel; unterstützte 374 n.Chr. die Usurpation seines Bruders Firmus [3] gegen Valentinianus I., die aber scheiterte. 397 floh er vor seinem anderen Bruder Gildo, der versucht hatte, ihn umzubringen, und seine Söhne töten ließ, nach Italien. 398 kämpfte er im Auftrag Stilichos gegen Gildo und gewann (angeblich durch ein Wunder) trotz zahlenmäßiger Unterlegenheit. Bald danach soll er von Stilicho ertränkt worden sein. PLRE 1, 566. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Moderator

(97 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] In der Spätant. zusammenfassende Bezeichnung für die Prov.-Statthalter, die mit dem Clarissimat ( vir clarissimus ) versehen waren (Cod. Theod. 1,10,8 u.ö.), ähnlich rector, iudex. Von Iustinianus wurde 535 n. Chr der m. erstmals als wirklicher Amtstitel für Statthalter bestimmter Prov. im Rang eines spectabilis (Hoftitel) verwendet ( m. Iustinianus Helenoponti, Nov. 28, Phoniciae ad Libanum, Edict. 4, Arabiae, Nov. 102); dieser hatte Zivil- und Militärgewalt. Gelegentlich findet man m. auch als Titel nichtstatthalterlicher Beamter und sogar des K…

Makrina

(94 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Geb. um 327 n.Chr., Schwester von Basileios [1] d.Gr., Petros von Sebaste und Gregorios [2] von Nyssa. Tochter des Rhetors Basileios und der Emmelia, Enkelin der älteren M. (ca. 270-ca. 340). M. lebte nach dem Tod ihres Bräutigams auf einem Familienbesitz am Iris in Pontos ein asketisches Leben; gest. um 380. Ihr Bruder Gregorios schrieb eine Biographie M.s ( Vita M. iunioris; Greg. Nyss. opera ascetica 8,1, p. 370-414) und ließ sie in seinem Werk De anima et resurrectione (PG 46, 12-160) als Lehrmeisterin seine theolog. Fragen beantworten. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten…

Mariades

(63 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] (Μαριάδης). Bürger und Ratsherr von Antiocheia am Orontes; wurde wegen Veruntreuung öffentlicher Gelder aus der bulḗ ausgeschlossen, flüchtete ins Perserreich und verriet die Stadt beim Einfall des Sapor um 260 n.Chr. Dieser ließ ihn bald darauf hinrichten. Or. Sib. 13, 89-102; SHA Trig. tyr. 2,2-3; Amm. 23,5,3; Zos. 1,27; 3,32,5; Ioh. Mal. 12,295-296. PIR2 M 273. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Quintinus

(63 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] war magister equitum per Gallias unter Magnus Maximus [7], der ihm 387 n. Chr. seinen Sohn Victor anvertraute. Q. fiel 388 bei einem gegen den Rat des Nannienus bei Neuß unternommenen Vorstoß auf rechtsrheinisches Gebiet. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography PLRE 1, 760  P. Richardot, Un dèsastre romain peu connu sur le Rhin, in: Riv. storica dell' antichità 25, 1995, 111-130.

Promotus

(100 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Flavius P., evtl. comes Africae vor 386 n. Chr., 386-391 magister militum; besiegte als magister peditum per Thracias 386 die Greuthungi an der unteren Donau, 388-391 magister equitum. P. führte 388 die Reiterei gegen Magnus Maximus [7], wurde 389 Consul und befreite 391 Theodosius I. aus einer schwierigen mil. Lage. Sein heftiger Konflikt mit Rufinus [3] führte zu Tätlichkeiten im consistorium und noch 391 wohl auch zum Tod des P. in Thrakien in einem angeblich von Rufinus veranlaßten Hinterhalt. Seine beiden Söhne wur…
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