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(4,960 words)

Author(s): Arazi, A. | Hanaway, W.L. | Soucek, P.
(a.), cup-bearer, the person charged with pouring wine, to be distinguished from the chief butler or sommelier ( s̲h̲arābī or ṣāḥib al-s̲h̲arāb ). The chief butler, an important official of the ʿAbbāsid court and the great houses of the highest classes (M.M. Ahsan, Social life under the ʿAbbāsids , London 1979, 156), is not unreminiscent of the sār ha-mas̲h̲kīm of the Pharaohs’ court (Gen. xl, 1) and the Sāsānid maybad̲h̲ (A. Christensen, L’Iran sous les Sassanides2 , Copenhagen 1944, 21-3, 389). 1. In Arabic usage. During the D̲j̲āhiliyya . sāḳī had a double c…


(12,364 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Hanaway, W. L. | Flemming, B. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
or mart̲h̲āt (A., pl. marāt̲h̲ī ) “elegy”, a poem composed in Arabic (or in an Islamic language following the Arabic tradition) to lament the passing of a beloved person and to celebrate his ¶ merits; rit̲h̲āʾ , from the same root, denotes both lamentation and the corresponding literary genre. 1. In Arabic literature. The origin of the mart̲h̲iya may be found in the rhymed and rhythmic laments going with the ritual movements performed as a ritual around the funeral cortège by female relatives of the deceased, before this role bec…


(311 words)

Author(s): Hanaway, W.L.
, the by-name of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn Wāʿiẓ Kās̲h̲ifī (b. 21 D̲j̲umādā I 867/11 February 1463, d. 939/1532-3), author, preacher and prominent Naḳs̲h̲bandī Ṣūfī, and son of the famous Kamāl al-Dīn Ḥusayn Wāʿiẓ [see kās̲h̲ifī ]. Born in Sabzawār, he was brought up and educated in Harāt. His mother was the sister of D̲j̲āmī [ q.v.]. Among his early teachers were D̲j̲āmī and Raḍiyy al-Dīn ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr Lārī. He was early attracted by Naḳs̲h̲bandī ideas, and travelled to Samarḳand in 889/1484 and again in 893/1487-8 to study with K̲h̲wād̲j̲a ʿUbayd Allāh Aḥrār [ q.v. in Suppl.], ch…