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Neumark, Georg

(212 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 16, 1621, Bad Langensalza – Jul 8, 1681, Weimar). After 1624 Neumark grew up in Mühlhausen, Thuringia, where he attended the Gymnasium. ¶ He also studied at the Gymnasiums of Schleusingen (1632) and Gotha (1641), and possibly the Latin school in Osterode am Harz (from 1636). Several years of travel included stays in Magdeburg, Lüneburg, Hamburg (1641/1642), and Kiel (1642/1644). In 1648/1649 he studied in Königsberg (today Kaliningrad). Years spent in Thorn (today Torun; 1649/1651), Danzig (today Gd…

Stigel, Johann

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (May 13, 1515, Fiemar, near Gotha – Feb 11, 1562, Jena). After attending school in Gotha, Stigel went to Wittenberg in 1531 to study law, philology, astronomy, medicine, and physics. He received his master’s degree on Apr 20, 1542; on Aug 27, 1543, he was appointed to a professorship in the faculty of arts. In 1548 he was called to Jena to build up the Hohe Schule in cooperation with V. Strigel and was offered a chair. His contacts indicate that he was associated with the circle o…

Baier, Johann Wilhelm, the Elder

(260 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1647, Nürnberg – Oct 19, 1695, Weimar) began studying philosophy and (Near Eastern) philology at Altdorf in 1664 followed by Jena in 1669. He received his Dr. theol. in 1674 and was appointed professor in 1675. In 1694 he received an appointment at Halle. In 1695 he sat on the consistory and the church council, and was chief court pre…

Starcke, Christoph

(168 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1684, Freienwalde – Dec 12, 1744, Driesen, Neumark [now Drezdenko, Poland]). After attending school in Berlin, began studying at Halle in 1703. From Halle he brought the spirit of Pietism to his future work as an instructor in Berlin (1705), pastor in Nennhausen, Kreis Rathenow (1709), and senior pastor and garrison chaplain in Driesen (1737). In collaboration with others, he produced a Synopsis bibliothecae in Novum Testamentum (1733–1737), an exegetical and homiletical reference work with many tables, which continued in print into the l…

Rosenmüller, Johann Georg

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1736, Ummerstadt bei Hildburghausen, Thuringia – Mar 14, 1815, Leipzig). After attending school in Nuremberg since 1751, Rosenmüller began his university studies in 1757 in Altdorf. After a time as a tutor, he was appointed pastor in Hildburghausen in 1767 and in Heßberg in 1768. In 1772 he was appointed deacon and adjunct superintendent in Königsberg, Franconia. In 1775 he was appointed to a chair at Erlangen, and in 1783 he was appointed professor, superintendent, and c…

Magdeburg, Joachim

(235 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (1525, Gardelegen, Altmark – c. 1587) received his bachelor's degree from Wittenberg in 1546, then served as rector in Schöningen until 1547, when he was appointed pastor in Dannenberg. Having served from 1549 to 1551 in Salzwedel, he resigned voluntarily. He served as deacon in Hamburg (Sankt Petri) from 1552 to 1558; after being removed, he served as pastor in Oßmannstedt (Thuringia), where he was removed in 1562. In 1563 he resided in Eisleben. In 1564 he was appointed pastor i…

Zillertal Emigrants

(183 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] The Zillertal Emigrants were the last population group in modern European history to be banished for religious reasons. The Zillertal, which had been part of Tyrol since 1816, had been spared the expulsion of the Salzburg Emigrants in 1731/1732, but in 1826 there was open resistance to the Roman Catholic Church on the part of lay Christians. When attempts at conversion failed, the 1836 election of a new archbishop of Salzburg led – under legally dubious circumstances – to the use …

Tschernembl, Georg Erasmus

(170 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 26, 1567, Schloss Schwertberg – Nov 18, 1626, Geneva). After studies in Altdorf and an educational tour of western Europe, he worked in the diplomatic service of the Upper Austrian estates, including stays in Graz and Prague. On the basis of a highly charged theory of a federation of the estates based on Calvinistic theology and hostility to the monarchy ( Consultationes, 1624), he included the Bohemian confederation (president of the Bohemian war council 1619/1620) in his planned federation, which also included the Protestant Union (16…

Ungleich, Lucas

(159 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Unglerus; 1526, Hermannstadt [Sibiu] – Nov 21, 1600, Birthälm, Transylvania [Biertan, Romania]). After studying in Wittenberg, he received his M.A. in 1550 and was appointed lecturer at the Hermannstadt Gymnasium. In 1561 he was a member of a delegation sent to several German universities to confirm the orthodox eucharistic doctrine of the Transylvanian Lutherans. In 1565 he was appointed pastor in Kelling (Calnic), in 1567 in Berthälm. On May 6, 1572, Ungleich received the most …

Leyser

(902 words)

Author(s): Sommer, Wolfgang | Koch, Ernst | Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika
[German Version] 1. Polycarp, the Elder (Mar 18, 1552, Winnenden, Württemberg – Feb 22, 1610, Dresden), student of J. Andreae and J. Heerbrand (master's degree 1570). In 1573 he was appointed pastor in Gellersdorf, Austria. After receiving his doctorate from Tübingen in 1576, he was appointed general superintendent in Wittenberg, where he also served as professor of theology and a member of the consistory. The framing, defense, and introduction of the Wittenberg Concord (see Book of Concord ) were the centerpiece of his work there. In 1587 he was ap…

Kirchner, Timotheus

(224 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1533, Döllstädt – Sep 14, 1587, Weimar) attended school in Erfurt and Gotha, studied in Wittenberg from 1549, became pastor in Großfurra in 1554, then in Dachwig in 1555. He received his M.A. in Jena in 1560 and was appointed pastor in Hersleben in 1561, but was removed from office in 1563 on the charge of being a Gnesio-Lutheran. Reinstated as pastor in Hersleben in 1568, he received his Dr. theol. in Jena in 1571, became general superintendent and court chaplain in Wolfe…

Sagittarius, Johann Christfried

(187 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 28, 1617, Bres­lau [now Wrocław] – Feb 19, 1689, Altenburg, Thuringia). After the death of his parents in 1623, Saggitarius was brought up in Jena. After attending school in Brunswick (to 1628) and university in Jena (to 1641), in 1641 he was appointed deputy school director in Hof. In 1643 he received his M.A. and became school director in Jena. In 1646 he was appointed professor of history and literature at Jena and in 1650 dean of the philosophical faculty. In 1651 he bega…

Pezel, Christoph

(261 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 5, 1539, Plauen, Vogtland – Feb 24, 1604, Bremen). After attending school in Plauen, Pezel studied in Jena (1555), Leipzig (1563), and Wittenberg (1564), then returned to teach in Plauen. In 1565 he received a fellowship from Electoral Saxony and in 1567 was appointed professor of philosophy at Wittenberg. In 1569 he was made court preacher, and in 1570 he received his doctorate. As a disciple of Melanchthon, Pezel was one of the leading Wittenberg Philippists. In 1574 he was…

Kromayer, Johannes

(159 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 8, 1576, Döbeln – Jul 13, 1643, Weimar) studied in Leipzig, 1597; became pastor in Eisleben in 1598, was awarded an M.A. in 1600, and was appointed court preacher (1613) and general superintendent (1627) in Weimar. In his capacity as inspector of schools, Kromayer introduced a school system based on the didactic methods of the educational reformer W. Ratke and published schoolbooks (esp. Deutsche Grammatica, 1618). In contrast to the reforms aspired to by Ernest the Pious in Gotha (from 1640), Kromayer did not pursue the objective of effec…

Crell

(281 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst | de Groot, Aart
[German Version] 1. Johann (Crellius; Jul 26, 1590, Hellmitzheim, Franconia – Jun 11, 1633, Rákow, Poland) attended school in Nuremberg from 1600 to 1603, then until 1605 in Stolberg in the Harz mountains; in Nov 1607 he began his studies at Altdorf, where he served as alumni superintendent. There he came in contact with the crypto-Socinians around the physician E. Soner. In Dec 1612 he fled to Rákow, where he became professor of Greek and served as rector from 1616 to 16…

Irenäus, Christoph

(227 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Summer 1522, Świdnica [Schweidnitz], Poland – c. 1595, Buchenbach, Germany). Irenäus studied in Wittenberg in 1544 and became the head of a school in Bernburg in 1545, then in Aschersleben in 1548. On Feb 17, 1549, he received his M.A. in Wittenberg. After his ordination in Wittenberg (1552), he became deacon in 1553, in 1559 archdeacon in Aschersleben, in 1562 pastor in Eisleben, in 1566 court chaplain to Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxony-Weimar in Coburg and Weimar, in 1570 visitat…

Neumann, Kaspar

(200 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1648, Breslau [today Wroclaw] – Jan 27, 1715, Breslau). Neumann began his studies in Jena in 1667 and received his M.A. in 1670. In 1673 he became the traveling companion of Prince Christian of Saxe-Gotha. In 1676 he was appointed court chaplain in Altenburg; in 1678 he was made deacon and in 1689 pastor of Sankt Maria Magdalena in Breslau and appointed to professorial positions at both municipal Gymnasiums. In 1697 he was appointed pastor primarius of Sankt Elisabeth and made inspector of churches and schools. The publication of sermons linking c…

Heßhus, Tilemann

(268 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Hesshusius, Heshusen, Hesshusen; Nov 3,1527, Niederwesel – Sep 25, 1588, Helmstedt) began his studies in 1546/47, received the M.A. in Wittenberg (1550), became pastor primarius in Goslar (1553), professor and pastor in Rostock (1556), professor and general superintendent in Heidelberg (1557), in Bremen (1559), superintendent in Magdeburg (1560), pastor primarius in Goslar (1553), professor and pastor in Rostock (1556), professor and general superintendent in Heidelberg (1557), i…

Rosinus, Bartholomäus

(183 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (c. 1520 Pößneck, Thuringia – Dec 17, 1585, Regensburg) began his studies at Wittenberg in 1536, receiving his M.A. in 1544. He taught in Gotha, becoming rector in 1544. In 1551 he became a deacon in Eisenach and in 1559 was appointed superintendent in Weimar. In 1562 he was dismissed and then reappointed in 1567, as a result of ¶ religio-political shifts in Ernestine Thuringia. In 1563 he was the Schönburg-Waldenburg superintendent in Glauchau. He was a co-author and signatory of the Gnesio-Lutheran Reuss-Schönburg Confession in 1567. In …

Crell, Paul

(145 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Krell; Feb 2, 1531, Eisleben – May 24/27, 1579, Meißen) began studies in Wittenberg in November 1548, received the M.A. on Feb 22, 1552, ordained on Sep 29, 1556, was preacher in the palace chapel in Wittenberg, received the Dr.Theol. on Dec 7, 1559, ¶ became professor of theology in Wittenberg in January 1560 and rector of the University in the summer of 1563, transferred to the consistory of Meißen on Jun 20, 1569, professor at Wittenberg once again from June 1574 to spring 1577, and transferred back …
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