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Segimerus

(81 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Leader of the Cherusci, father of Arminius, also recorded as Sigimerus. (Vell. Pat. 2,118,2). It is unclear whether the S. who is mentioned by Cassius Dio (56,19,2) as a co-conspirator of Arminius is identical with this S. or with the identically named brother of Segestes; this S., with his son Sesithacus, capitulated to the Romans in AD 15 (Tac. Ann. 1,71,1; Str. 7,1,4). The 'conspirator' may even be a third S. [1. 142] Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography 1 D. Timpe, Arminius-Studien, 1970.

Barbarians

(1,945 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Initially the term B. refers, from a Greek perspective, to groups speaking foreign languages. ‘Hellenes-Barbarians’ fit as ‘asymmetrical alternative terms’ [5. 218-229] into a pattern well known in ethnology:  foreigners who are different are termed B. and distinguished from one's own culture by means of a value judgement based on strongly ethnocentric and hellenocentrically determined concepts. The antithesis is more frequently comprehensible, with the ancient image of B. having …

Maroboduus

(773 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] King of the Marcomanni of a noble family ( genere nobilis, Vell. Pat. 2,108,2). In Rome, Maroboduus received the ‘favours’ of Augustus (Str. 7,1,3) early on - more is not known. After returning to his people, M. made himself king (Vell. Pat. 2,108,2) and after 9 BC, he went with the Marcomanni and other Suebian groups - probably with Roman approval - from the Main region into Bohemia which had become sparsely populated after the Boii had moved away ( Boiohaemum, Str. 7,1,3; Tac. Germ. 42,1)…

Italicus

(172 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) | Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
Common Roman cognomen. Most famously the poet  Silius I. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] King of the Cherusci from 47 AD Son of the Cheruscan  Flavus (the brother of  Arminius) and of a daughter of the Chatti leader Actumerus, born and raised in Rome. Because the quarrelling nobility demand I. as king of the  Cherusci, emperor  Claudius [III 1] installs this last offshoot of the stirps regia as king in AD 47 (Tac. Ann. 11,16); this shows the new development of Romano-Germanic relations since the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Driven out afte…

Arminius

(784 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[English version] Das Bild des A. ist stark durch die von Tacitus geprägte Formel ‘Befreier Germaniens’ ( liberator haud dubie Germaniae, Tac. ann. 2,88) bestimmt. Der aus vornehmem Geschlecht ( stirps regia, Tac. ann. 11, 16) stammende Cherusker (Cherusci) A., Sohn des Segimerus, lebte 37 Jahre und besaß 12 Jahre eine Machtstellung ( potentia, Tac. ann. 2,88). Als wahrscheinlichstes Geburts- bzw. Todesjahr ergeben sich daraus 16 v. und 21 n.Chr. Die biographischen Angaben bis zur Varusschlacht (9 n.Chr.) sind spärlich: Als Führer german. Verbände ( ductor popularium) erlernte A.…

Inguiomerus

(134 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[English version] Angesehener, anfangs romfreundlicher cheruskischer Stammesadliger, Bruder des Segimerus, der später mit seinem Neffen Arminius den Kampf gegen Germanicus [2] anführt (Tac. ann. 1,60,1). Schwer verwundet bei dem vergeblichen Versuch, gegen den Rat des Arminius das Lager des Aulus Caecina [II 8] Severus zu stürmen (Tac. ann. 1,68), flieht I. aus der Schlacht bei Idistaviso (Tac. ann. 2,17,5) und bleibt erfolglos am Angrivarierwall (Tac. ann. 2,21,2). Da er seinem Neffen Arminius ni…

Barbaren

(1,596 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[English version] Anfänglich bezieht sich der B.-Begriff aus griech. Sicht auf fremdsprachige Gruppen. “Hellenen-B.” entsprechen als ‘asymmetrische Gegenbegriffe’ [5. 218-229] einem in der Ethnologie bekannten Muster: Andersartige, Fremde werden in stark ethno- bzw. hellenozentrisch bestimmten Vorstellungen als B. wertend von der eigenen Kultur abgegrenzt. Die Antithese ist häufiger in negativer als positiver Prägung des ant. B.-Bildes faßbar. Fremd-, Rand- und Grenzvölker begegnen darin ebenso wi…

Flavus

(185 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
Röm. Cognomen (“goldgelb”, “blond”, wohl nach der Haarfarbe), in republikanischer Zeit bei C. Alfius [I 6] F., der Familie der Decimii, Sp. Larcius F. und L. Lucretius Triticipinus F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] aus cheruskischem Stammesadel, Vater des Italicus, auch nach 9 n. Chr. auf röm. Seite Bruder des Arminius aus cheruskischem Stammesadel. Sohn des Segimerus, Schwiegersohn des Chattenprinceps Actumerus (Tac. ann. 11,16,1), Vater des Italicus [1. 201f.]. F. stand auch nach 9 n.Chr. auf röm. Seite. Bezeugt sind Ein…

Maroboduus

(658 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[English version] König der Marcomanni aus edlem Geschlecht ( genere nobilis, Vell. 2,108,2). In Rom empfing M. - mehr ist nicht bekannt - früh “Wohltaten” des Augustus (Strab. 7,1,3). Nach der Rückkehr zu seinem Volk erhob M. sich zum König (Vell. 2,108,2) und zog mit den Markomannen und anderen suebischen Gruppen nach 9 v.Chr. - wohl mit röm. Zustimmung - aus der Maingegend in das nach dem Abzug der Boii siedlungsarme Böhmen (Boiohaemum, Strab. 7,1,3; Tac. Germ. 42,1). M. vergrößerte durch Unterwerfung …

Italicus

(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) | Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
Weitverbreitetes röm. Cognomen. Am bekanntesten der Dichter Silius I. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] Cheruskerkönig ab 47 n. Chr. Sohn des Cheruskers Flavus (dem Bruder des Arminius) und einer Tochter des Chattenprinceps Actumerus, in Rom geboren und aufgewachsen. Da I. vom zerstrittenen Adel als König der Cherusci verlangt wird, setzt Kaiser Claudius [III 1] den letzten Sproß der stirps regia 47 n.Chr. als König ein (Tac. ann. 11,16); das zeigt die neue Entwicklung der röm.-german. Beziehungen seit der Varusschlacht. Nach Parteikämp…

Segimundus

(137 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Son of Segestes, the leader of the Cherusci (Str. 7,1,4). Elected priest of the imperial altar of the Ubii (Ara Ubiorum) in AD 9, he tore up his priest's fillets during Arminius' revolt and fled to the rebels (Tac. Ann. 1,57,2). The priestly office and the altar may be evidence of an Augustean province of Germania; they underline the close cooperation between the Cherusci and the Romans. In AD 15 his father, under siege by Arminius, sent him to seek help from Germanicus [2]. Germa…

Thumelicus

(118 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Son of Arminius and Thusnelda, presumably born in Roman captivity in AD 15, and paraded in Germanicus' [2] triumph in AD 17 (Str. 7,1,4). A description of how the boy was raised in Ravenna and fell victim to ridicule, referred to by Tacitus (Tac. Ann. 1,58,6), is lost. When the Cherusci requested Rome for Italicus [1] as king in AD 47, T. was no longer alive (Tac. Ann. 11,16,1). T. is the hero of a tragedy, Der Fechter von Ravenna, which appeared in 1854 under the pseudonym Friedrich Halm; its authorship has been fiercely debated [2. 414]. Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) Biblio…

Sparta

(14,168 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) | Waywell, Geoffrey B.
Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) I. Image and Interpretation (CT) [German version] A. Introduction: Sparta as a Model (CT) Apart from Rome, no ancient community has been more admired or repudiated than Sparta (S.). In the 'Spartan tradition' [75] stretching from Antiquity to the modern age, we are time and again confronted by 'antithetical patterns of perception' (Stefan Rebenich) which have their origins in the contrasting Classical images of ancient Athens and S. The 'images' and 'stories' evoked by S. are of a…

Flavus

(213 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
Roman cognomen (‘golden yellow’, ‘blond’, probably named after the hair colour), in the Republican period for C. Alfius [I 6] F., the family of the Decimii, Sp.  Larcius F. and L.  Lucretius Triticipinus F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy, father of Italicus, also after AD 9 on the side of Rome Brother of  Arminius, of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy. Son of  Segimerus, son-in-law of the Chatti princeps Actumerus (Tac. Ann. 11,16,1), father of  Italicus [1. 201f.]. F. remained on the side of Rome…

Inguiomerus

(153 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Respected aristocrat of the Cherusci tribe initially friendly to Rome, brother of  Segimerus, who with his nephew  Arminius later waged war on  Germanicus [2] (Tac. Ann. 1,60,1). Badly wounded in the futile attempt, against the advice of Arminius, to storm the camp of Aulus  Caecina [II 8] Severus (Tac. Ann. 1,68), I. fled from the battle at  Idistaviso (Tac. Ann. 2,17,5) and remained without success at the Angrivarian Wall (Tac. Ann. 2,21,2). As he no longer wished to obey his nephew Arminius, he went over in AD 17 with a band of followers ( cum manu clientium) to the side…

Arminius

(929 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] The image of A. is highly influenced by the epithet ‘Liberator of Germania’ ( liberator haud dubie Germaniae, Tac. Ann. 2,88), coined by Tacitus. A. was of a noble family of the ( stirps regia, Tac. Ann. 11, 16)  Cherusci, he was son of  Segimerus, lived to the age of 37 and held a position of power ( potentia, Tac. Ann. 2,88) for 12 years. Based on this information, the most probable years of his birth and death were 16 BC and AD 21, respectively. Biographical information up until the battle with Varus (AD 9) is sparse. As leader of German tribes ( ductor popularium), A. learned La…

Segestes

(202 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] Most important pro-Roman leader of the Cherusci, opponent of Arminius. Like the latter and like Flavus [1], S. held Roman citizenship (Tac. Ann. 1,58,1). He warned P. Quinctilius [II 7] Varus, in vain, of Arminius's conspiracy  (Vell. 2,118,4; Flor. Epit. 2,30,33; Cass. Dio 56,19,3) and advised taking all the leaders (including Arminius and S. himself) into custody (Tac. Ann. 1,55,2; 58,2). After the Varus catastrophe in 9 AD S. had - according to his account before Germanicus [2]…

Thusnelda

(144 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] The daughter of the Cherusci leader Segestes (Str. 7,1,4), T. was known as 'the woman in the shadow of Arminius' [1. 121], who abducted her. Pregnant by Arminius and still devoted to him, she fell back under the power of her father (as Tacitus impressively describes) and, a Roman prisoner from AD 15, she gave birth to Thumelicus (Tac. Ann. 1,55-59). In AD 17, Thumelicus accompanied her in the triumph of Germanicus [2] (Str. 7,1,4). Aside from the reception history of Arminius hims…

National Socialism

(19,312 words)

Author(s): Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) | Mittig, Hans-Ernst
Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) I. National Socialist Ideology and Classical Studies (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) After initially discussing how some specifically National Socialist (NS) issues in several areas were affected by the interplay with Antiquity, we shall attempt to shed light on the political implications of the scholarly study of both ancient history in Germany and other areas of Classical Studies. As we look at individuals, institutions and concepts - in the universities and beyond -…