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Duns Scotus, John

(1,682 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (“Doctor subtilis”; 1265/66 Duns?, Scotland – Nov 8, 1308, Cologne). There is great uncertainty on the biography of Duns Scotus. He came from Scotland, entered the Franciscan Order (Franciscans), and studied at Oxford and possibly Paris. He was ordained a priest in 1291. Whether he first taught at Cambridge is under dispute. Around 1300, he lectured ¶ at Oxford on the Sentences of Peter Lombard; likewise in Paris beginning in 1302. He was expelled from the country in 1303 for …

Ratramnus

(172 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (died c. 870), monk at Corbie Abbey. He intervened in the first Eucharistic controversy with his writing De corpore et sanguine Domini (843), directed against Paschasius Radbertus; using dialectical method he opposed a sensory understanding of the Lord’s Supper, showing that the sacrament was always hidden as a mystery beneath a figura, and rejecting identification of the historical with the sacramental body of Christ. In this he influenced Berengar of Tours. In the books De praedestinatione (849/850), also commissioned by Charles the Bald, he opposed Hi…

Latomus, Jacobus

(198 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Jacques Masson; around 1475, Cambron, Belgium – May 29, 1544, Leuven), studied the artes liberales in Paris and earned his master's after 1500 in Leuven. Awarded the Dr. theol. in 1519, he became rector of the University of Leuven in 1537. Latomus participated as a theological adviser in the ¶ proceedings of the Inquisition against Jacobus Praepositus and W. Tyndale. In his De trium linguarum et studii theologici ratione dialogus (1518), he attacked the philological method of Erasmus of Rotterdam and opposed it with the ecclesial tradition. In 152…

David of Dinant

(138 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (died 1206/1210) probably received the Master of Arts in Paris, and supposedly spent time at the court of Innocent III. He excerpted and translated Aristotle's works of natural philosophy from Greek, discovered his De problematibus, and developed, under neoplatonic influence, a pantheistic philosophy in which he identified God with the primary material and mind. He defended the worldview of Pythagoras ag…

Peter Aureol

(303 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Petrus Aureoli; c. 1280, Gourdon – Jan 10, 1322, Avignon). After becoming a Franciscan around 1300, Peter studied in Paris, possibly with J. Duns Scotus; in 1312 he was teaching in Paris, in 1314 in Toulouse, and from 1316 to 1318 in Paris. In 1318 he received his master’s degree in theology in Paris. In 1320 he became the Franciscan provincial in Aquitaine, and in 1321 archbishop of Aix. In 1311 his Tractatus de paupertate he dealt with the issue of Franciscan poverty (IV, 2). In 1312 he wrote a metaphysical Tractatus de principiis. In 1314 he defended the Immaculate Co…

Isidore of Seville (Saint)

(399 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 560 – Apr 4, 636, Seville). From a Hispano-Roman family who migrated from Cartagena to Seville, Isidore succeeded his brother Leander as archbishop of Seville" in 599/601. He was an adviser to King Sisebut, founded episcopal schools with libraries in Seville, Toledo, and Saragossa and chaired the synods of Seville (619) and Toledo (633). In many of his works, he endeavored to communicate, especially to the clergy, comprehensive religious and secular learning nourished by antiquity. The Differentiae contain an alphabetical list of words meant to elucida…

Alain of Lille

(139 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] Alanus ab Insulis (1116/1130 near Lille– 1202/1203 as a Cistercian). Alain probably studied in Paris and Chartres around 1140/50 with Gilbert of Poitiers, Bernard of Clairvaux, and Thierry of Chartres. He then taught liberal arts and theology in Paris and Montpellier. On the one hand, he wrote poetical-philosophical pieces such as De planctu naturae and Anticlaudianus de Antirufino portraying his philosophy of nature and ethical views in allegorical form. On the other, his Regulae Theologicae or Regulae caelestis iuris initiated a new type of theology based…

Nicholas of Amiens

(108 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (1147 – after 1203). A student of Alain of Lille and Gilbert of Poitiers, Nicholas wrote the apologetic Ars fidei catholicae, in which, following the model of Euclid’s geometry and inspired by Aristotle’s Analytica posteriora, he tried to derive theological tenets from more fundamental nontheological statements having the character of definitions, postulates, and axioms, forgoing citation of authorities. His hope was to secure the position of theology as a science. The work follows the structure of Peter Lombard’s Sententiae. Reinhold Rieger Bibliography Ed.: Ar…

Arnold of Brescia

(312 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1100, Brescia – 1155, Rome). Arnold, who may have been a pupil of Abelard in Paris 1115–1120, was an Augustinian Canon and possibly provost of the monastery of San Pietro a Ripa in Brescia. There, in contact with Cathari and Waldensians, he supported the reform program of the Patarines, opposing …

Albertus Magnus

(707 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Albertus Alemanus, Colonien- sis, Teutonicus, de Lauing; c. 1200, Lauingen – Nov 15, 1280, Cologne) was from a knightly family (not from Bollstadt). After studies in Padua, where Jordan of Saxony induced him to enter the Dominican Order in 1223, he spent his novitiate in theological studies in Cologne, took his vows in 1224, and was ordained …

Berengar of Tours

(181 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1000, Tours – Jan 6, 1088, St. Côme near Tours) studied with Fulbert in Chartres, and became the head and chancellor of the school of Tours, where he taught the Trivium ( Artes liberales ). He advised the count of Anjou and was archdeacon of Angers. His eucharistic doctrine, over which he became embroiled in a fierce dispute with Lanfranc of Pavia, was condemned in 1050 at synods in Rome and Vercelli…

Grace

(9,133 words)

Author(s): Filoramo, Giovanni | Spiekermann, Hermann | Sänger, Dieter | Rieger, Reinhold | Saarinen, Risto | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Systematic Theology – VI. Law – VII. Judaism I. Religious Studies 1. The use of the term grace has been influenced strongly by the historically innovative Pauline conception. For Paul, grace is a gift, a unique fruit of God's salvific purpose and redemptive action. After the analogy of other redemptive religions, Paul employed this term to denote a fundamental aspect of the salvific action of the deity. In other religion…

Trutvetter, Jodocus

(190 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (born in Eisenach – May 9, 1519, Erfurt). As an M.A. (1484) Trutvetter was Luther’s teacher in Erfurt from 1501 to 1505, before Luther began his theological studies. He was a canon of Sankt Severin in Erfurt. In 1501 he became rector of the University of Erfurt, where he received is doctorate in theology in 1504. In 1507 he became a professor in Wittenberg and an archdeacon at the Allerheiligenstift. He served as rector of the University of Wittenberg in 1507/1508 and as dean of t…

Peter of Spain

(149 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (or Peter of Portugal; 13th cent.). Long identified with Pope John XXI, the author of the widely disseminated Summulae logicales (c. 1240) is now recognized as a different person. His treatise on dialectics expanded the logica vetus, based on Porphyry together with Aristotle’s work on categories and his De interpretatione, and the logica nova, which included Aristotle’s Analytica and Elenchi sophistici together with the topics and syllogistics of Boethius, by adding the logica modernorum, the terministic logic that discusses the properties of terms, es…

Chartres

(553 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold | Winterfeld, Dethard v.
[German Version] I. Bishopric and Cathedral School – II. The Cathedral of Notre-Dame I. Bishopric and Cathedral School The bishopric of Chartres probably goes back to the 4th century. The first documented bishop is Adventinus (511). The bishops Fulbert of Chartres (1006–1028), Ivo of Chartres (1090–1116), John of Salisbury (1177–1180), and Peter of Celle (1180–1183) engaged in scholarly activities. The see of Chartres was suffragan to Sens and, from 1622, to Paris. The cathedral sch…

Murner, Thomas

(327 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1475, Oberehnheim [Obernai, Alsace] – 1537, Oberehnheim). After attending the Franciscan monastery school in Strasbourg, Murner entered the order in 1490, became a priest in 1494, and studied between 1495 and 1501 at the universities of Freiburg im Breisgau, Paris, Cologne, Rostock, Prague, Krakov, and Vienna. In Freiburg he became in 1506 doctor of theology, and in Basel in 1519 doctor of canon and civil law. He served his order ¶ as lector in Freiburg, Berne, Speyer, and Frankfurt am Main. In Vienna in 1505 he was crowned poeta laureatus. Following S. Brant h…

Simon, Richard

(236 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (May 13, 1638, Dieppe – Apr 11, 1712, Dieppe), studied at the Oratorian College in Dieppe and in 1657 at the Jesuit College in Rouen. In 1670 he became a priest of the Oratory. His Histoire critique du Vieux Testament (1678; ET: A Critical History of the Old Testament, 1682) was confiscated at the instigation of J.B. Bossuet but was published in a new edition in Amsterdam and Rotterdam in 1680. In it he attempted to counter the attacks of B. Spinoza on the authority of the Old Testament with the principle of the historical grow…

Albert von Sachsen

(158 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (1316, Helmstedt – Aug 8, 1390, Halberstadt), natural philosopher and logician. Albert studied at the University of Paris, where he became Master of Arts in 1351 and Rector in 1353. In 1362, he entered the service of Urban V; in 1365, he became the first rector of the University of Vienna and in 1366 bishop of Halberstadt. While in Paris, he wrote a commentary on the physical and logical works of Aristotle and a compendium of logic, Perutilis Logica, influenced by William of Occam, as well as the Sophismata. In natural philosophy and logic, his …

Monte Cassino

(423 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] The abbey of Monte Cassino was founded in 539 by Benedict of Nursia in the area of the Roman Casinum. After its destruction by the ¶ Lombards in 577, its monks fled to Rome. In 718, Monte Cassino was refounded by Abbot Petronax from Brescia. In 744, the duke of Benevento, Gisulf II, donated land to the abbey, which was later extended. In 787, Charlemagne confirmed the abbey's possession. By papal privileges, Monte Cassino was made exempt from episcopal influence (Exemption). Abbot Girulf…

Robert of Melun

(180 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (c. 1100 – Feb 2, 1167, Hereford), pupil of Abelard and Hugh of St. Victor in Paris; 1137, M.A. in Paris. Robert’s pupils included Thomas Becket and John of Salisbury. Robert was a theologian in Melun; he was an opponent of Gilbert of Poitiers and Peter Lombard. In 1160 he became arch-¶ deacon of Oxford and in 1163 bishop of Hereford. His magnum opus, the Sententiae, deals in its first book with the salvific events of the Old Testament, with the doctrine of God and the Trinity, and anthropology. Its second book deals with the salvific events of…
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