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Zephyritis

(228 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζεφυρίτις; Zephyrítis). Epithet of Arsinoe [II 3] II, the sister-wife of Ptolemaeus [3] II Philadelphus who was worshipped as Aphrodite Z. Her sanctuary, donated by the admiral of the fleet Callicrates [9] (Posidippus, Epigrammata 12 GA I. 3110-3119) was located on the cape of Zephyrion (from which the name Z. is derived) not far from Alexandria [1] (Str. 17,1,16; Posidippus, Epigrammata 13 GA 1, 3120-3125) according to Ath. 7,318d; …

Hellusii

(107 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] In Tac. Germ. 46,4, the name of a fantastic people with a human face and a body the shape of an animal. An etymology that goes back to an animal name is therefore assumed; a Germanic equivalent with Greek ἐλλός, Armenian

Telete

(465 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (τελετή /teletḗ, pl. teletaí, < *tḷ1-et2 from teléō/télos < *tel-1 , 'to bring' [10. 232] in contrast to the common two-fold derivation of *kwel- and *tel-2 ; as a Greek foreign word in Lat. teleta, Apul. Met. 11,22 et alibi on the cult of Isis). In the religious realm, the term could refer to various types of events (cf. Hsch. s. v. τ.: festivals, sacrifices, mysteries), originally to religious acts in general (e.g. Batr. 303 [11. 97]; Aristoph. Pax 413). It is therefore used in connection with various Greek fest…

Gorgophone

(187 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γοργοφόνη; Gorgophónē). [German version] [1] Epithet of Athena Epithet of Athena in the sense of ‘killer of Gorgo’ (Eur. Ion 1478; Orph. H. 32,8 Quandt after the passage in Euripides, although γοργοφόνος is transmitted in the vocative); the name can also be interpreted as ‘glowing terribly’ (cf.  Persephone). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 F. Bräuninger, s.v. Persephone, RE 19, 946-947. [German version] [2] One of the Danaids One of the Danaids ( Danaus, Danaids) natural sister of Hypermestra. Her husband is Proteus (Apollod. 2,16 Wagner), whose …

Moriae

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (μορίαι/ moríai). In Athens a term for the olive-trees that were sacred to Athena, the maintenance of which, by assigning special custodians, known as gnṓmones, was watched over by the Areopagus ( áreios págos ) (Lys. or. 7,25). The moriai and even their stumps, which were protected by fences ( sēkós), were sacred, and this may be connected with the high regenerative power of olive trees (cf. Hdt. 8,55). Even the Spartans are said, according to schol. Soph. OC 701, to have spared them when devastating Attica. Offences against the moriai were punished with death (Aristo…

Hersilia

(241 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Daughter of the noble Sabine Hersilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,1). During the rape of the Sabine women, she is the only married woman who is abducted (Cass. Dio 56,5,5 is a reflection of this: H. teaches the Roman women tà gamiká, ‘what forms part of marriage’), she stays with her daughter, who was also abducted (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,45; Macrob. Sat. 1,6,16), and marries, according to some sources, a certain Hostilius in Rome and so becomes the grandmot…

Teleboae

(203 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τηλεβόαι; Tēlebóai). Mythical people in the west of Acarnania, on Leucas (Str. 7,321 f.) and the adjoining islands (Plin. HN 4,53). Their eponymous progenitor Teleboas is considered a son of Poseidon and the father of Pterelaus (Anaximand. FGrH 9 F 1) or as the latter's son of Pterelaus and the brother of Taph(i)us (Herodorus FGrH 31 F 15). His descriptive name means 'far-calling' (Eust. Od. 1396,3-4) or derives in a strange etymology from T.'s campaign against Electryon to steal his 'oxen' (

Quies

(89 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Personification of quiet, the religious worship of which is documented exclusively by the mention of a sanctuary of  Q. ( fanum Quietis) on the via Labicana  (Liv. 4,41,8). The inscription Quies Augustorum can be found on coins of Diocletianus and Maximianus after their abdication in AD 305; however, it must be seen in connection with the relief they felt at their withdrawal from official duties, rather than as in fact reflecting religious practice. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliography R. Vollkommer, s. v. Q., LIMC 7.1, 612; 7.2, 489.

Pyanopsia

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πυανόψια; Pyanópsia). Attic festival in honour of Apollo, held on the 7th of the month Pyanopsiṓn (end of October). A thick pulse soup (Greek pýanos, ‘bean’ and hépsein, ‘to cook’, from which the festival's name is also d…

Tolma

(137 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόλμα/ Tólma, 'boldness, daring'). Notes on the ancient concept of T. as a deity, although scanty and late, are unquestionable [1. 1681]: Schol. Aesch. PV 12c Harington mentions an (unidentified) sanctuary to T. and Anaideia in Athens; in App. Lib. 21 Scipio (Cornelius [I 71]) prays to T. and Phobos; Anth. Pal. 9,29,1-4 (Antiphilus [3] of Byzantium) addresses T. as the fateful inventor of sea travel (ambivalent: Anth. Pal. 7,529,1). Claudianus [2] presents the corresponding Latin …

Zenoposeidon

(168 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζηνοποσειδών/ Zēnoposeidṓn). Ζηνο-/ Zēno- is the Doric form of Zeus, Z. is the interpretating Greek translation of Zeus Osogo(a) worshipped in the Carian city of Mylasa [2. nos. 319-327, 361-376; 4. 109-117] who, according to depictions on coins [3. vol. 2, 576-582], exhibited attributes and traits of Zeus (eagle, double axe) and Poseidon (crab, trident) [4. 117-126]; this is documented in the double name (with a humorous anecdote in Machon fr. 8 GA = Ath. 8,337c). The sanctuary which can be located close to (Ath. loc.cit.) or inside (Str. 14,2,23) the city (f…

Taraxippus

(146 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταράξιππος/ taráxippos, 'confuser of horses', from híppos and the aorist stem of taráttein). The monument in the form of a round altar, which was associated with T. (v.i.), stood on the (long) eastern side of the Hippodrome in Olympia, near the nýssa (turning post); the horses often shied there, which may have been due to preparing to round the turning post, but was explained by divine action. Paus. 6,20,15-18 offers several identifications for T. and his monument and himself considers an altar to Poseidon Hippios likel…

Protesilaus

(380 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πρωτεσίλαος/ Prōtesílaos, Latin Protesilaus; approx. 'First Among the People', cf. Hom. Il. 2,702; [2. 938]; mythological interpretation of the name from his death before Troy in Eust. Hom. Il. 2,700 p. 325; in Hdt. 9,116 Πρωτεσίλεως). Son of Iphicles (Hom. Il. 2,704-707) or Actor (Hes. fr. 199,6 M.-W.); Astyoche (Eust. Il. 2,698 p. 323) and Diomedea (Hyg. Fab. 103) are named as his mother. Like his brother Podarces [1] (Hom. ibid.), he courted Helen (Helena I [1]) (Hes. fr. 199,5 M…

Myrmex

(177 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Μύρμηξ; Mýrmēx). [German version] [1] Father of the eponymous heroine of the Attican deme of Melite According to Philochorus FGrH 328 F 27 and Hes. fr. 225 M.-W. (= Harpocr. 202,7 Dindorf) he was the father of the eponymous heroine of the Attican deme of Melite. The legend of the Athenians' futile war against the máchimoi mýrmēkes (‘embattled ants’; Eubulus, Glaucus PCG V fr. 20) who guarded the gold dust on Mt. Hymettus, is likewise set in Attica and probably related to this myth. It became proverbial (Pl. Plt. 450b; Harpocr. 308,6 Dindorf). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2]…

Hipponous

(100 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππόνοος; Hippónoos). [German version] [1] Name of Bellerophontes According to schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Dindorf, the old name of  Bellerophontes; schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Erbse offers the name of Leophontes (Λεωφόντης). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Adrastus Son of Adrastus [1] who deliberately threw himself on th…

Prometheia

(115 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Προμήθεια/ Promḗtheia). Attic festival of unknown date in honour of Prometheus, at which there were torch races from his altar in the Academy through the Kerameikos to an unrecorded finish (Paus. 1,30,2; Schol. Aristoph. Ran. 135). A torch race modelled on that of the P. was introduced or reorganised at the Hephaistia (Hephaestus II) in 421/20 BC (IG I3 82,32-35). Each phyle entered a team and a gymnasiarch (Isaeus 7,36) for the music agon of the men's and boys' choirs (IG II2 1138; Ps.-Xen. Ath. Pol. 3,4); their performance costs are given as 12 minai (Lys. 21,3). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliography Deubner, 211 f.  L. Eckhart, s. v. Prometheus, RE 23.1, 654 f.

Pandion

(379 words)

Hippomenes

(246 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππομένης; Hippoménēs). [German version] [1] Victor in foot race against Atalante Boeotian from Onchestus, son of  Megareus (Hyg. Fab. 185) or Ares (schol. Theoc. 3,40) and Merope (Hyg. Fab. 185). The foot race between H. and  Atalante was already known to Hesiod (fr. 74 M.-W.). The most comprehensive account can be found in Ov. Met. 10,560-707 [1]: Upon his request, Venus gives him three apples which Atalante picks up during the race, causing her to lose. H. fails to perform the thanks-offering; Venus en…

Taurokathapsia

(140 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταυροκαθαψία/ Taurokathapsía: CIG 3212, Smyrna). From taúros ('bull') and katháptein ('hang on to'). A form of bull-fighting at the Eleutheria in Larisa [3] (IG IX 531; 535; 536), in which a rider swung himself on to the bull grabbing its horns and tried to throw it to the ground (as in Heliod. 10,28-30; cf. Anth. Pal. 9,543); a relief from Smyrna and coin images from Larisa have been preserved [1. 221-224]. In inscriptions, taurokathapsia is suggested for cities of the Greek East (Aphrodisias: CIG 2759b; Ancyra: CIG 4039; Sinope: CIG 4157); it is c…

Cecrops

(658 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κέκροψ; Kékrops). Indigenous (Apollod. 3,177) Attic first king, who was revered cultically on the acropolis of  Athens, where his grave also lay (Antiochus-Pherecydes FGrH 333 F 1). The Cecropion (building inscription Erechtheion IG I3 474,56. 56-63) is presumably identical with the structure at the south-west corner of the Erechtheion, which was taken into consideration during the construction of the temple, and can be dated before the  Persian Wars (Hecatompedon inscription IG I3 4B, 10-11). An inscription of the Augustan period names a priest of …
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