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Koelman, Jacobus

(222 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (baptized Nov 23, 1631, Utrecht – Feb 6, 1695, Utrecht). After studying in Utrecht, he was chaplain to the embassies in Copenhagen and ¶ Brussels from 1657. From 1662, he was pastor in Sluis, Zeeland. As a student of G. Voetius and significantly influenced by (English and Scottish) Puritanism (Puritans/Puritanism), Koelman became the programmatist and militant defender of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie. He pushed for Sunday observance and for church discipline and opposed church holidays and compulsory wors…

Herrnschmidt, Johann Daniel

(194 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Apr 11, 1675, Bopfingen, Württemberg – Feb 5, 1723, Halle). Following his studies in Altdorf and Halle, Herrnschmidt was Informator at the Paedagogium and at the Gynaeceum of A.H. Francke's foundations from 1700 onward, became adjunct of the theological faculty in 1701, and was deacon in Bopfingen from 1702 to 1712. In 1712, after being awarded a Dr.theol. in Halle, he was appointed superintendent and councilor of the consistory in Idstein (Nassau). He was called back to Halle in 1715 to assist Fra…

Sonthom, Emanuel

(184 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (anagram of E. Thomson; dates unknown), English merchant in Danzig (Gdansk) and Stade (presence documented from 1599 to 1612). Under the title Güldenes Kleinot der Kinder Gottes (Frankfurt am Main, 1612), he translated the First Booke of the Christian Exercise (1582) of the English ¶ Jesuit Robert Persons (or Parsons), which he knew in a Protestant version by Edmund Bunny ( A Booke of Christian Exercise, 1584). After the edition published in Lüneburg in 1632, which included a third section probably written by J. Gesenius, “Sonthom” (so called f…

Niemeyer

(648 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo | Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] 1. August Hermann (Sep 1, 1754, Halle – Jul 7, 1828, Halle), great-grandson of A.H. Francke. Following school at the Pädagogium Regium of the Frankische Stiftungen (Francke institutions), he began to study philosophy, classical philology, and theology in Halle. In 1776 he began teaching in the Halle schools. After receiving his doctorate, he began lecturing in 1777; in 1779 he was appointed associate professor and in 1784 full professor of theology and superintendent of the Pädagogiu…

Nösselt, Johann August

(251 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (May 2, 1734, Halle – Mar 3, 1807, Halle). After schooling at the Latin School of the Francke Stiftung, Halle, Nösselt studied in Halle from 1751 (particularly under the influence of S.J. Baumgarten), and traveled for purposes of study through Germany, Switzerland, and France in 1755. From 1797, Nösselt lectured as M.A. on philosophy and rhetoric, church history, and especially the New Testament, following the historical-philological method of J.A. Ernesti. In 1760 he became assis…

Quandt, Johann Jakob

(241 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1686, Königsberg [Kaliningrad] – Jan 17, 1772, Königsberg), began his studies in Königsberg in 1701 and moved to Leipzig in 1706 (M.A. in 1707), Halle, and Jena, along with an educational journey through Germany and the Low Countries, devoted primarily to the study of eastern languages. In 1710 he became a lecturer at Königsberg, and he received his Dr. theol. from Rostock in 1715. In 1716 he was appointed associate professor of theology. In 1718 he also began serving as …

Molinos, Miguel de

(275 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (baptized Jun 29, 1628, Muniesa, province of Teruel, Spain – Dec. 28/29[?], 1696, Rome) studied from 1646 onward at the Jesuit college of Valencia, where he held a benefice in the Church of San Andrés, and was ordained to the priesthood in 1652. Residing in Rome from 1663, Molinos's role as confessor and spiritual adviser in the style of quietist mysticism made him the focus of a large crowd of followers, which also included cardinals and Pope Innocent XI. His Guía espiritual, a major work of Quietism in which he extolled regular contemplation, inward concentr…

Wittenberg, University of

(976 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (founded as Leucorea). After the division of Wettin Saxony in 1485, in which Leipzig (Leipzig, University) went to the Albertine line, the city of Wittenberg developed into the official residence of the Ernestine line and hence the capital of Electoral Saxony. On Oct 18, 1502, under the elector Frederick the Wise the University of Wittenberg was founded as the official university of electoral Saxony. It was granted imperial privileges on Jul 6, 1502; papal privileges were not gran…

Böhme, Anton Wilhelm

(220 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Jun 1, 1673, Ösdorf – May 27, 1722, Greenwich, England) studied in Halle from c. 1693 and became the informatory at the Waldeckian court in Arolsen. Involved in Waldeck's Pietism dispute (1699/1700), he lost his office in 1700 because of spiritualist and separatist tendencies. After a stay once again with A.H. Francke in Halle, he went to London in …

Olearius

(1,263 words)

Author(s): Hasse, Hans-Peter | Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika | Sträter, Udo | Kadelbach, Ada
[German Version] 1. Johannes (Kupfermann; Sep 17, 1546, Wesel – Jan 26, 1623, Halle). After studying at Marburg (1566) and Jena (1570, M.A. 1573), Olearius began teaching at the Gymnasium in Königsberg (today Kaliningrad) in 1574. In 1577 he was appointed professor of Hebrew and in 1578 professor of theology at Helmstedt (1579 Dr.theol.). In 1581 he was appointed superintendent in Halle, where he set the organization of the church in order and occasionally held theological disputations. He was a clo…

Reitz, Johann Heinrich

(187 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1655, Oberdiebach – Nov 25, 1720, Wesel), Reformed theologian. After studies in Heidelberg (1675), Bremen (1678), Herborn, and Leiden (1679), he became rector in Frankenthal. In 1681 he became a pastor in Freinsheim, in 1689 inspector in Ladenburg, in 1694 pastor in Asslar, and in 1695 court chaplain and inspector in Braunfels. Under the influence of B.C. Klopfer and H. Horch, he was won to the cause of separatism and chiliasm (Millenarianism) and was removed from office …

Porst, Johann

(276 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1668, Oberkotzau, near Hof – Jan 9, 1728, Berlin). After studies at Leipzig from 1689 to 1692, Porst served as a private tutor in Neustadt an der Aisch, where his reading of P.J. Spener’s penitential sermons converted him to Pietism and led him to organize conventicles. In 1695 he relocated to Berlin and found a place in the group associated with Spener, who supported him. In 1698 he was appointed pastor in Malchow, in 1704 assistant pastor of the Friedrichs­werder and Do…

Egard, Paul

(199 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (c. 1580, Kellinghusen, Holstein – 1655, Nortorf), a Holstein pastor; after studies in Rostock, he was initially deacon, then rector in Rendsburg, and, from 1610, pastor in Nortorf. Egard was a dedicated advocate of inner-Lutheran church critique, the author of edifying books and of practice-orientated interpretations of the Bible. As a supporter and defender of J. Arndt ( Ehrenrettung Johannis Arndten, 1624), he is assigned to the orthodox wing of the Arndt School. Egard was the first Luther…

Rogall, Georg Friedrich

(115 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Apr 19, 1701, Königsberg – Apr 6, 1733, Königsberg). In 1725 Rogall became assistant professor, in 1731 full professor of theology in Königsberg, and in 1729 consistorial counselor. At first he was a follower of the Königsberg Wolffians (C. Wolff), but he experienced conversion in Halle (A.H. Francke) and turned against Wolffianism. In the reorganization of East Prussian church and educational structures initiated by the king of Prussia, following the pattern of Halle Pietism, Rogall took over ¶ from H. Lysius the leading role in opposing orthodoxy (J.J. Q…

Stenger, Johann Melchior

(190 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Sep 26, 1638, Erfurt – Mar 7, 1710, Wittstock). After studying in Jena (1654), Leipzig, Wittenberg, Straßburg (Strasbourg; 1658), and Erfurt, Stenger became a deacon at the Predigerkirche in Erfurt in 1666. His terministic teaching regarding repentance and grace, for which he relied primarily on Sonthoms Güldenes Kleinod (E. Sonthom), set off the “Stenger controversy,” which precipitated a crisis in “early Erfurt Pietism” (Wallmann), which P.J. Spener unsuccessfully tried to resolve. Relieved of his office in Erfurt in 1670, …

Hartlieb, Samuel

(176 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (or Hartlib; c. 1600, Elbing – 1662, London). After studying at Cambridge (1625/1626), Hartlieb moved permanently to England c. 1628. He combined enthusiasm for F. Bacon's scientific reforms with chiliastic expectations and utopian Christian ideas (J.V. Andreae), to whose realization he dedicated himself as an organizer, publisher, correspondent, and publicist. He saw the Puritan revolution as the onset of the millennium, which would bring to England a golden age of science togeth…

Anton, Paul

(209 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Feb 12, 1661, Hirschfelde – Oct 20, 1730, Halle). Anton began his studies in Leipzig in 1680; in 1681 he became acquainted with P.J. Spener. In 1686, together with A.H. Francke, he founded the Collegium Philobiblicum, the nucleus of the Pietist movement in Leipzig. In 1695 Anton was called to Halle as professor of theology and …

Pietism

(6,563 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | O’Malley, Steven | Winkler, Eberhard | Sträter, Udo | Feldtkeller, Andreas
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe a. Definition. Pietism was a religious revival movement in late 17th- and 18th-century Protestantism (I, 1), alongside Anglo-Saxon Puritanism (Puritans) the most significant post-Reformation religious movement. Emerging within both the Lutheran and the Reformed churches, Pietism broke with orthodox Protestantism regulated by the authorities, which it perceived as a moribund Christianity of habit, pressed for an individualized and spiritualized rel…

Rambach

(367 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] 1. Johann Jakob (Feb 24, 1693, Halle – Apr 19, 1735, Giessen). From 1712, Rambach studied in Halle; in 1715 he worked on J.H. Michaelis’s edition of the Biblia Hebraica; from 1719 (together with G.A. Francke), he studied in Jena (esp. under J.F. Buddeus), where in 1720 he gained his M.A.; in 1723 he became assistant in the Halle faculty of theology; in 1726, assistant professor; in 1727, full professor of theology in Halle; in 1731, Dr.theol.; from 1731, professor and general superintendent in Giessen. Ramba…

Breithaupt, Joachim Justus

(225 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1658, Northeim near Göttingen – Mar 16, 1732, Berge Monastery near Magdeburg) studied (1676–1683) in Helmstedt and Kiel (where he lived in the house of C. Kortholt with A.H. Francke) and became associate professor of homiletics there in 1684. In 1685, he became court preacher and consistorial counselor in Meinigen. After a stay with P…
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