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(1,125 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Peter (Kiel)
[German version] (Latin statera, campana; καμπανός/ kampanós, καμπανόν/ kampanón). Steelyard refers to the form of straight-beam balance with arms of varying length, which has been demonstrated in Italy beginning in the late 1st cent. BC, and was later widespread in the Roman Empire. The early form of the typical Roman steelyard and its mechanical principle was described by Vitruvius, who provides the then common term statera ('scale'; Vitr. De arch. 10,3,4), while much later, around AD 600, Isidorus calls it campana (Isid. Orig. 16,25,6). Correspondingly, in the late ant…


(257 words)

Author(s): Geppert, Karin (Tübingen) | Weiß, Peter (Kiel)
(Ἴσινδα; Ísinda). [German version] [1] Central Lycian settlement near modern Belenli This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia Central Lycian settlement near modern Belenli, Lycian name isñt. Polis identified by Steph. Byz. (s.v. Σινδία), which together with Simena and Apollonia was part of a sympolity around Aperlai. In the archaic and classical periods a dynastic seat with a walled acropolis. Three pillar tombs, one with reliefs (scenes of hunting, battle, music and wrestling) from the 2nd half of the 6th …


(146 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Peter (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Ὄλβασα; Ó lbasa). One of the Pisidian colonies (Pisidia) founded by Augustus, Colonia Iulia Augusta Olbasena/ Olbasenorum, at the site of an earlier fortified Hellenistic city high above the Lysis valley in western Pisidia. Coin minting is attested from Antoninus [1] Pius up to the mid 3rd cent. AD ([1] with [2. 39f.]). Coins and inscriptions indicate increasing Hellenization. O. was last mentioned as a city of the province Pamphylia in the 6th cent.;…


(179 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Peter (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae (Κρῆμνα, Lat. Cremna). Important Pisidian fortress and city of Hellenistic origin (κρημνός = ‘precipitous’). Coins from c. 100 BC [1]. Around 35-30 BC, C. was conquered by Amyntas [9] of Galatia (Str. 12,6,4). Under Augustus, veterans were settled there and the name became Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Cremnensium [2] from then on. C. was one of the most prosperous ‘Pisidian’ colonies with abundant minting of coins until Aurelianus' time (270-275) [1]. Under Probus, it was th…


(701 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Peter (Kiel) | Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Dismissal from Roman military service The word missio was a technical term for dismissal from Roman military service. During the Principate, honesta missio usually followed after completion of the normal period of service (20 years in the legions, 16 in the praetoriae cohortes, 25 in the Auxilia and the equites singulares Augusti, 26, later 28, years in the navy), often even several years later. Invalids received early missio causaria. Severe misconduct was punished by dishonourable discharge ( missio ignominiosa). Veterans who were dimissi honesta missione or e…


(1,581 words)

Author(s): Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Weiß, Peter (Kiel) | Et al.
(Ἀντιόχεια; Antiócheia). [German version] [1] on the Orontes Founded as Antigonea on the Orontes 307 BC, but after the defeat of Antigonus I by Seleucus I Nicator at  Ipsus (301 BC), the town was moved to the site of present-day Antakya (Turkey) in 300 BC, and renamed as A. in honour of the latter's father Antiochus. Capital city of the Seleucid kingdom; it developed under the Seleucids through incorporating numerous settlements into a tetrapolis, each with their own boundary walls. Thanks to its positi…

Slingers' lead bullets

(653 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Peter (Kiel)
[German version] (μολυβδίς/ molybdís, μολύβδαινα/ molýbdaina, glans). Slingers' lead bullets were the most advanced type of ancient sling shot; they are mentioned several times in sources and thousands of examples survive. Lead (μόλυβδος/ mólybdos) shot of the desired shape and calibre was relatively easy to make on the spot (in half-moulds, in sets of up to nine at once [7. 40; 8. 153]). The special ballistic characteristics of SLB are founded primarily on the high density of the material. In 401 BC SLB, which had certainly al…


(130 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Peter (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἐτεννα; Étenna). Pisidian mountain town in the Side hinterland, today's Sirtköy. Coins assure that it was already established in the early Hellenistic period. E. provided mercenaries (epigraphically attested), fought with a large contingent on the side of Achaeus [5] against Selge (Pol. 5,73,3) in 218 BC and was probably a target in Antiochus III's Pisidian campaign in 193 BC (Liv. 35,13,5). In the Imperial period it belonged to the province Lycia-Pamphylia; it was the suffragan d…


(116 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Peter (Kiel)
[German version] Pisidian town on the north-western bank of the Lake of Burdur/Turkey, remains on the hill of Üveyik Burnu near Karakent [2]. Its (probably Greek) name has been deduced from the ethnicon ΛΥΣΙΝΙΕΩΝ of the coins; the few literary records provide distorted forms. Attested for the first time on the occasion of the campaign of Manlius Vulso (in 189 BC) to whom L. surrendered (Pol. 21,36; Liv. 38,15,8); L. is missing from the Byzantine diocese lists. Meagre coin minting under Septimius Severus [1]. Weiß, Peter (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Aulock 1, 35f., 109f. 2 G. E. Bean, Notes and In…


(123 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Peter (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Πεδνηλισσός/ Pednēlissós, Πετνηλισσός/ Petnēlissós). Fortified city in Pisidia west of Selge. With the aid of Achaeus [5] and Garsyeris, P. was able to ward off the attack by Selge in 218 BC (Pol. 5,72-76). Among the more important Pisidian cities mentioned in Str. 12,7,2. Coin minting in the 1st cent. BC and from Traianus (AD 98-117) to Gallienus (AD 253-268) [1]. In the Late Antique and Byzantine Period it was a suffragan diocese of Perge [3]. Ruins near modern Kozan [2. 14f.]. Weiß, Peter (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Aulock…


(431 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Peter (Kiel)
[German version] A donativum is a one-time special gift to soldiers by the Roman principes that was paid out in money. The practise of the donativum presupposes the power to dispose of the army and the public treasury as well as the institutionalized closeness of the commander and his troops. Therefore, it is a typical phenomenon of the Imperial period. It continues practices of the late Republic, under different conditions, in which the distribution of booty could be mixed with motives of rewarding for loyalty in the c…

Military diplomas

(615 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Peter (Kiel)
[German version] Modern term for a type of Roman document introduced by the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) and later widespread. Military diplomas (MD) are bronze double documents consisting of two rectangular, closed, and sealed tablets. On the two inner sides is the actual text of the document, with the same text on the outside of tabella I. On the outside of tabella II, the names of seven witnesses (licenced by the state since Vespasian) flank the seals secured to the central wire closure by a capsule soldered onto the document. MD are notarized copies of ad personam imperial orders, prepa…