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Ulenberg

(158 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Ulenberg, Kaspar (2.1.1549 Lippstadt – 16.2.1615 Köln), kath. Theologe, Bibelübers. und Psalmendichter. Nach Studien in Wittenberg konvertierte er 1572 vom Luthertum zum Katholizismus. Pfarrer in Kaiserswerth (1576–1583), Köln (1583–1594), ebd. Regens am Laurentianum (1592–1611), Rektor der Universität (1610–1612). Durch viele katechetische Schriften wirkte er gegenreformatorisch. Seine Bibelübers. (Druck 1630) erlangte überarbeitet als »Mainzer Bibel« (1662) weite Verbreitung. Gr…

Petavius

(156 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Petau), Dionysius (21.8.1583 Orle´ans – 11.12.1652 Paris). Franz. Jesuit (seit 1605). P. lehrte zunächst Rhetorik in Reims, La Fle´che und Paris; von 1621–1644 war er Prof. für Theol. am Colle`ge de Clermont in Paris. Bedeutend sind seine Editionen (Synesius von Cyrene, Epiphanius von Salamis) und seine Arbeiten zur Chronologie. Sein Hauptwerk »Theologica Dogmata« verweist die kirchl. Lehre auf Schrift und Tradition und trug ihm den Ruf eines Begründers der positiven Theologie ei…

Walenburch, Adrian and Peter van

(198 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Adrian: May 23, 1609, Rotterdam – Sep 12, 1669, Wiesbaden; Peter: 1610, Rotterdam – Dec 21, 1675, Cologne), theological controversialists and bishops. After completion of their legal studies in Angers, in 1641 the nuncio Fabio Chigo persuaded them to go to the confessionally unstable duchy of Jülich-Berg. Adrian went to Cologne in 1645, where he became a canon of the cathedral in 1647, officialis in 1648, and auxiliary bishop in 1661. Peter was appointed auditor of the nunciature. In 1658 Johann Philipp v. Schönborn brought him to Mainz as a…

Raynaldi, Oderico

(91 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Reinaldus; 1595, Treviso – 1671, Rome), theologian, historian, from 1680 Oratorian, between 1650 and 1656 superior general. He continued¶ the 12-volume Annales ecclesiastici of the Oratorian C. Baronius with nine further volumes, bringing it up to 1564 (Rome, 1676f.; his ninth vol., vol. XXI of the Annales, appeared posthumously). The quality of his work is superior to that of his predecessors. Thus Catholics could put forward a work equal in value to the Protestant Magdeburg Centuries. Rolf Decot Bibliography Annales ecclesiastici, ed. G.D. Mansi, 15 vols.,…

Thomassin

(91 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Thomassin, Louis (25.8.1619 Aix-en-Provence – 24.12.1695 Paris), kath. Theologe, Kanonist. Er wurde Oratorianer (1633) und Theologieprof. in Saumur (1648) und Paris (1653). Wegen theol. Differenzen von der Lehre entbunden, widmete er sich ab 1673 theologiegesch. Studien, v.a. untersuchte er das Kirchenrecht mit hist. Methodik. Rolf Decot Bibliography P. Clair, L. Th., 1964 (Bibliogr.) F.J. Busch, Lex Christi secundum naturam, 1975 H.J. Sieben, Die kath. Konzilsidee von der Reformation bis zur Aufklärung, 1988, 274–305 M. Brulin, Le verbe et la voix,…

Sanchéz

(92 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Sanchéz, Tomás (1550 Cordoba – 19.5.1610 Granada), Jesuit (seit 1567), Moraltheologe. Seine Ehelehre (3 Bde.) wurde zum Standardwerk, obwohl seine offene und detailreiche Darstellung gerügt wurde. Modern war seine Auffassung, nicht jeder Ehevollzug bedürfe der Zeugungsabsicht. Jansenisten warfen ihm Laxismus vor. Rolf Decot Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Disputationum de sancto matrimonii sacramento …libri 10, 3 Bde., 1602–1605 Opus morale in praecepta Decalogi, 2 Bde., 1613–1621 Über S.: BCJ 7, 1896, 530–537, Suppl. Nr.2280.5266 J. Theiner, Die Entwic…

Scioppius

(163 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Scioppius, Gaspar (Kaspar Schoppe; 26.6.1576 Pappenberg – 18.10.1649 Padua), vielseitiger Späthumanist, Philologe, Kontroverstheologe, Jurist, Politiker. Aus prot. Pastorenfamilie stammend, konvertierte er 1598 in Prag zur kath. Kirche. 1598–1607 knüpfte er in Rom Beziehungen zu Papst und Kurie. Er war auf verschiedenen diplomatischen Missionen im Dienst der Habsburger, Wittelsbacher und der Kurie in Deutschland und Italien tätig. In polemischen Schriften wandte er sich gegen unte…

Sirmond

(157 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Sirmond, Jacques (12.10.1559 Riom – 7.10.1651 Paris). Franz. Jesuit (1576), 1581–1590 Lehrer in Pont-à-Mousson und Paris (hier war u.a. Franz von Sales sein Schüler). 1590–1608 in Rom als Sekretär des Jesuitengenerals C. Aquaviva und Mitarbeiter des C. Baronius. Seit 1617 Rektor des Collège de Clermont in Paris. Von 1637–1643 Beichtvater Ludwigs XIII. Als Gelehrter vf. er hist. und dogmengesch. Werke. Er unterschied zw. Dionysius von Paris und Dionysius Areopagita, schrieb über Pr…

Sylvan

(130 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Silvan), Johannes (geb. in Südtirol – 23.12.1572 Heidelberg), Theologe, Prediger, Konvertit zum Protestantismus. Um 1555 wirkt er als bfl. Kontroversprediger in Würzburg. Die Lektüre der Werke Melanchthons führte ihn zur reformatorischen Lehre. 1560 trat er in Tübingen zum Luthertum über und wurde Pfarrer in Calw. Kurfürst Friedrich III. von Kurpfalz übertrug ihm das Amt eines ref. Pfarrers und Superintendenten in Kaiserslautern und ab 1567 in Ladenburg. Er widersetzte sich der E…

Raynald

(74 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Reinaldus), Oderich (1595 Treviso – 1671 Rom), Theologe, Historiker, seit 1680 Oratorianer, 1650–1656 Generalsuperior. Er führte die zwölfbändigen, bis 1198 reichenden »Annales ecclesiastici« des Oratorianers C. Baronius in 9 Bde. bis 1564 fort und übertraf qualitativ seine Vorgänger (Rom 1676f.; der 9. Bd.=21. Bd. der Annales erschien postum). Damit lag katholischerseits ein den Magdeburger Zenturien ebenbürtiges Werk vor. Rolf Decot Bibliography Neuausg. der Annales ecclesiastici von G.D. Mansi, 15 Bde., 1747–1756.

Gregory of Valencia

(185 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Mar 1549, Medina del Campe, Castile – May 24, 1603, Naples), SJ (1565), and besides his disciple, Adam Tanner, the most important post-Tridentine theologian in Germany. He studied in Salamanca (1566–1568 and 1571/72) and Valladolid (1569–1571), and was professor of dogmatics and controversial theology in Dillingen from 1573. He was in Ingolstadt from 1575 to 1592, and in Rome from 1597 to 1602, where he defended L. de Molina in the dispute over grace. He commented on all the impo…

Saint-Martin, Louis Claude de

(385 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jan 18, 1743, Amboise, Département Indre-et-Loire – Oct 13, 1803, Paris), French theosophist (Theosophy). After study-¶ ing law and pursuing a military career, in 1771 he got to know Martinez de Pasqualis (1715–1799) in Bordeaux, who introduced him to mystical Freemasonry (Freemasons). This group of “Martinists,” with its center in Lyon, practiced a mysticism drawn from kabbalistic sources (Kabbalah: II), in which magical and theurgic rites played a role. In his travels he encountered other myst…

Stensen, Nils

(191 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] ( Jan 11, 1638, Copenhagen – Dec 5, 1686, Schwerin) studied languages, anatomy, and mathematics in Copenhagen, Amsterdam, and Leiden. His anatomical discoveries soon gained him the reputation as a scientist. In 1666 he was appointed physician to the court in Florence, where he converted to Catholicism. Discoveries during various expeditions placed him amongthe founders of scientific geology, paleontology, and crystallography. After ordination to the priesthood in 1675, he was appo…

Sirmond, Jacques

(194 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Oct 12, 1559, Riom – Oct 7, 1651, Paris), French Jesuit (1576). From 1581 to 1590 he taught in Pont-à-Mousson and Paris (where Francis of Sales was one of his students). From 1590 to 1608 he served as secretary to C. Aquaviva, the superior general of the Jesuits, in Rome, where he also worked with C. Baronius. In 1617 he was appointed rector of the Collège de Clermont in Paris. From 1637 to 1643 he was the confessor of Louis XIII. He wrote scholarly works on history and the history of dogma. He distinguished ¶ between Dionysius of Paris and Dionysius Areopagita, wrote on p…

Gretser, Jakob

(177 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1562, Markdorf – Jan 18, 1625, Ingolstadt), SJ (1679), a controversial theologian. He taught initially at the Jesuit gymnasia in Freiburg, Switzerland and Ingolstadt; after 1589, he was professor of philosophy, then of scholastic theology (1592–1605) and moral theology in Ingolstadt (1610–1615). After the departure of his teacher Gregory of Valencia, he was the leader of the Jesuits in Bavaria and adviser to the dukes (i.e. the Bavarian elector). He harshly persecuted all…

Erthal, Franz Ludwig von

(168 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Sep 16, 1730, Lohr – Feb 14, 1795, Würzburg) was the pro-reform prince-bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg. Under the bishop of Würzburg, Adam Friedrich v. Seinsheim, he became president of the secular administration of the diocese in 1763. In 1767 Joseph II called him to visit the Imperial Supreme Court in Wetzlar and in 1775 the continuing Reichstag at Regensburg. …

Thomassin, Louis

(103 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1619, Aix-en-Provence – Dec 24, 1695, Paris), Catholic theologian and canonist. He joined the Oratorians in 1633 and served as professor of theology at Saumur (1648) and Paris (1653). Removed from his teaching duties on account of doctrinal differences, after 1673 he devoted himself to historical studies, primarily applying historical methods to the study of canon law. Rolf Decot Bibliography P. Clair, Louis Thomassin, 1964 (bibl.; Fr.) F.J. Busch, Lex Christi secundum naturam, 1975 (Ger.) H.J. Sieben, Die katholische Konzilsidee von der Reformation…

Schoppe, Casper

(167 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jun 26, 1576, Pappenberg – Oct 18 1649, Padua), polymath, late Humanist, phi­lologist, controversial theologian, jurisprudent, and politician. The son of a Protestant pastor, he converted to Catholicism in Prague in 1598. In Rome from 1598 to 1607, he cultivated ties with the pope and the Curia. He was sent on several diplomatic missions in Germany and Italy on behalf of the Habsburgs, the Wittelsbachs, and the Curia. He wrote polemics against various ¶ schools of Protestantism. Around 1630, after the emperor’s victory in the Thirty Years War, Schoppe …

Maldonado, Juan

(171 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (c. 1533, Casas de la Reina, Estremadura, Spain – Jan 5, 1583, Rome), Jesuit (1562) theologian and exegete. As a professor at the Jesuit college in Paris (1565), he turned his back on Scholasticism and developed a positive theology based on the Bible. His influence was impaired by accusations of ¶ heresy regarding the Immaculate Conception and purgatory. Despite opposition, Maldonado was very popular and successful, not least in debate with the Calvinists. In Rome he helped shape the Jesuit Ratio studiorum and was a member of the pontifical commission for the …

Francis of Borgia, Saint

(197 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Oct 28, 1510, Gandia, Spain – Oct 1, 1572, Rome), third general of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Francis came from a highly situated family of Spanish nobility (great-grandchild of Pope Alexander VI and King Ferdinand of Aragon). In 1539–43 he was viceroy of Catalonia, 1543–50 duke of Gandia. After the death of his wife (eight children), he became a Jesuit in 1546, renounced his worldly rights in 1551, became a priest, and used his fortune on behalf of the Collegium Romanum (se…
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