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Peium

(84 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Πήιον/ Pḗion, Latin Peium; Πεῶν χωρίον/ Peôn chōríon), Deiotarus' treasure fortress (Str. 12,5,2; Cic. Deiot. 17). Hellenistic and Byzantine castle, built in a meander of the river Siberis (Kirmir Çayi) on a steep-sided rock plateau, modern Tabanoğlu Kalesi. Strong entrenchment fortification, cisterns, traces of a palace and a tunnel stairway in the northern part of the site. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 212f.  S. Mitchell, Blucium and Peium, in: AS 24, 1974, 61-74  K. Strobel, Galatica II, in: Orbis Terrarum 6, 2000

Podanala

(68 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Πωδανάλα/ Pōdanála). Fortified settlement of the northeastern tetrarchy of the Trocmi on the upper city of the Hittite cult city of Zippalanda (Kuşaklı Hüyük) near Sorgun; it was here that Pompeius [I 3] and Licinius [I 26] Lucullus met in 66 BC (Str. 12,5,2). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Strobel, Galatica I, in: Orbis Terrarum 3, 1997, 131-153.

Aspona

(80 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Ἄσπονα, Ἄσπωνα; Áspona, Áspōna). Border town of  Galatia north of the Tuz Gölü, modern Sarıhüyük. Statio on the pilgrim route, in the 4th cent. AD civitas; documented as a suffragan diocese from AD 342/343. Fortified hill with evidence of settlement as early as prehistoric times. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Belke, Galatien und Lykaonien, TIB 4, 1984, 135 S. Mitchell, Regional Epigraphic Catalogues of Asia Minor 2, 1982, 403-405.

Rhebas

(153 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Ῥήβας/ Rhḗbas). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia, present-day Riva Deresi River in Bithynia (Apoll. Rhod. 2,343; 650; Tab. Peut. 9,2 written incorrectly as ad herbas), present-day Riva Deresi; it discharges on the north coast of the Bithynian peninsula east of where the Bosporus flows into the Pontos Euxeinos. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography IK 10,3, 1987, 141 f. [German version] [2] Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, present-day Gökcesu Left-hand tributary of the Lower Sangarius, which rises on Olympus [13], present-day Gökçesu. Its valle…

Cuballum

(151 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Fortress in  Galatia ( C. Gallograeciae castellum: Liv. 38,18,5), can be identified with the spacious plateau situated near modern Ortakişla (north of Sülüklü) in a bend in the valley, with edges that fall away steeply and have to some extent obviously been consolidated for fortification purposes, and the drop of a massive cut embankment to provide a barrier against the rear elevations; otherwise no identifiable building remains [1. 31]. C. cont…

Galatia

(1,808 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
I. Region [German version] A. Definition Region in central Anatolia; it received its ethnically derived name following the conquest, settlement, and formation of states by the Celtic  Tolistobogii,  Tectosages, and  Trocmi, thus replacing the older names for its constituent regions (Phrygia, Cappadocia). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] B. Geography Before 188 BC, the tribal states of G. included, in the north, peripheral areas of  Paphlagonia and the territory of the  Mariandyni (basins of Bolu and Gerede), the zone ─ rich in woodl…

Tyana

(216 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Ḫattusa | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Aegean Koine (Τύανα/ Týana; Luwian Tuwana). Ancient Anatolian city, capital of southern Cappadocia, on the road to the Cilician Gates [1], modern Kemerhisar (settlement mound, aqueduct, tapping of springs). Seat of a Late-Hittite kingdom, which in the later 8th cent. BC probably came under the predominance of the Phrygian kingdom (Phryges). In the Hellenistic…

Arca

(47 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἄρκα; Árka). Town in  Armenia minor, present-day Akçadaǧ. Statio on the road Caesarea-Melitene (Arcas: Itin. Anton. 211,3), colonia Arca. Evidence of a bishopric from AD 431. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Hild, M. Restle, Kappadokien (TIB 2), 1981, 152 f. G.Hirschfeld, s.v.A. 4, RE 2, 1118.

Cybistra

(73 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Ḫattusa (Κύβιστρα; Kýbistra). Town in  ‘Cataonia at the end of the road from the Cilician Gates across the Taurus, later also called Heraclea; modern Tont Kalesı, 13 km south-east of Ereğli; belonged later to  Cappadocia II. It was a diocese from AD 325 and an archdiocese from c. 1060. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Kybistra, RE Suppl. 4, 1123 Hild/Restle, 188-190.

Siberis

(61 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Σίβερις). Right-hand tributary of the Sangarius, dangerous because of its flooding (Procop. Aed. 5,4,1-3), also called Hieros flumen  (Plin. HN 5,149), modern Kirmir Çayı (otherwise still in [1]). From the 1st until the 3rd cent. AD it formed the border between Bithynia and Galatia (Plin. loc.cit.). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s. v. Hieros flumen, RE 8, 1589. Belke, 224.

Eudoxias

(77 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Εὐδοξιάς; Eudoxiás). City of Galatia II, named after the wife of Arcadius or the daughter of Theodosius II, probably Hamamkarahisar (Arslani [1. 447-464]) at the foot of the  Dindymum ([2. 129] incorrectly attributes this area to Germia); documented to have been a bishopric from 451 onwards (Hierocles, 698,2). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 M. Waelkens, Germa, Germokoloneia, Germia, in: Byzantion 49, 1979 2 Mitchell 2. K. Belke, Germia und E., in: W. Hörandner et al., Byzantios. FS H. Hunger, 1984 Belke, 163.

Gorbeus, Corbeuntus

(81 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Γορβεῦς, Κορβεῦντος; Gorbeûs, Korbeûntos). Residence of Castor the Elder, the tetrarch of the Tectosages, who was murdered here along with his wife by his father-in-law  Deiotarus; the latter destroyed the castle and large parts of the settlement (Str. 12,5,3). Later a road station (Ptol. 5,4,6; It. Ant. 143,2; 205,9); SE of Oğulbey, 29 km south of Ankara. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 171 K. Strobel, Die Galater 2, 1998.

Cyzistra

(39 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium (Κύζιστρα; Kýzistra). Town and Byzantine fortress in the Cappadocian strategia of Cilicia (Ptol. 5,6,15), the modern Zengibar Kalesı, 56 km south-south-west of  Caesarea. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 219f.

Ekkobriga

(152 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Central town of the north-western  Trocmi tetrarchy, a fortified settlement of the Trocmi and a joint posting station for the roads to Ancyra and Tavium (Tab. Peut. 9,5: Eccobriga; It. Ant. 203,6: Ecobrogis), modern Kalekişla east of Sulakyurt [1. 148-151; 2. 28]. E. consisted of a steeply rising castle mount and an extensive walled lower town; scattered finds indicate settlement into the Byzantine period. The name of this obviously Celtic new foundation is derived from briga (‘fortified high place’), and can m…

Dascusa

(138 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Δασκοῦσα; Daskoûsa). City and fortress on the Euphrates limes in Cappadocia (strategia Melitene) on the border to Armenia minor (Plin. HN 5,84; 6,27; Oros. 1,2,23; Ptol. 5,6,19; 21 erroneously distinguishes D. and Dagusa), later counted as part of Armenia II, on the Satala-Melitene road (It. Ant. 209,3), located near Ağın, Elazığ. In the 4th cent., the Ala Auriana is stationed there (Not. Dign. Or. 38,22). Fortified settlement hill and late-antique fortress (Pağnık Öreni) [1; 2; 3]. The military camp was established in AD 80/82 [4]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Biblio…

Symposium

(32 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Fortress in Cappadocia probably built after 363 AD, modern Kaleköy at Şerefiye; possibly identical with the In Medio road station (It. Ant. 212,8). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 288 f.

Nyssa

(56 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium (Νύσσα/ Nýssa). Old Anatolian settlement and city in the Cappadocian strategy of Morimene (Ptol. 5,6,23), today Büyük-/Küçükkaletepe north of Harmandalı. In AD 372, Gregorius [2] became bishop of N. The city declined as early as the 9th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 246-248.

Ariarathia

(51 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἀριαράθεια; Ariarátheia). Town in  Cappadocia, strategia of Sargarausene, modern Pınarbaşı (former Aziziye), founded by Ariarathes IV. Documented as a suffragan diocese from AD 431. Under Constantine incorporated into  Armenia minor. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Hild, M. Restle, Kappadokien (TIB 2), 1981, 151 G. Hirschfeld, s. v. Ariarath(e)ia, RE 2, 815.

Sangarius

(233 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Σαγγάριος/ Sangários). River in Asia Minor, modern Sakarya, c. 520 km long, source (according to Str. 12,3,7; cf. 12,4,4; 5,3) 150 stadia…

Germia

(65 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Γέρμια; Gérmia). Town on the northern edge of the Dindymon in Galatia II, modern Gümüşkonak (previously Yürme; different [1]); attested from 553 as a suffragan diocese, then as an archdiocese.  Eudoxias Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 M. Waelkens, Germa, Germokoloneia, G., in: Byzantion 49, 1979, 447-464. K. Belke, G. und Eudoxias, in: W. Hörandner, Byzantios. FS H. Hunger, 1984, 1-11 …
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