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Job, Testament of

(293 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] The Testament of Job is a pseudepigraphal Jewish work in which the canonical book of Job is retold following the schema of testamentary literature. The text is extant in Greek, Slavonic, and Coptic fragments. The work comprises four sections, framed by a prologue in which Job (Jobab) assembles his children and an epilogue (52–53) describing the ascent of Job's soul to heaven. After an account of Job's pagan past, his future sufferings as a punishment for destroying a pagan idol are r…

Blessing and Curse

(3,866 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Steymans, Hans Ulrich | Lehnardt, Andreas | Fitzgerald, John T. | Greiner, Dorothea | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Historical and Systematic Theology– VI. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies From the perspective of religious studies, blessing and curse are dense, complex terms, hard to summarize in a single concept that would include …

Megillot

(487 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas

Qaddish

(319 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] (“holy”), a short Hebrew-Aramaic prayer handed down in various versions and containing supplications for the coming of the kingdom of God and for peace, in addition to doxological formulae. The “Half Qaddish” is recited in alternation with a prayer leader at the beginning and especially at the conclusion of the main sections of the liturgy (Pray…

Torah

(3,243 words)

Author(s): Achenbach, Reinhard | Lehnardt, Andreas | Liss, Hanna | Ochs, Peter
[German Version] I. Old Testament The noun tôrāh (הרָוֹתּ) is usually derived from the verb הרי/ yrh, “show,” hiphil “instruct.” In Israelite wisdom literature, it denotes ethical and religious instruction by parents (Prov 1:8; 4:1; 6:20; 31:26) or sages (Prov 13:14) as well as religious instruction by priests (Jer 18:18). As a term denoting the law (Law and legislation: II; LXX: νόμος/ nómos), it stands at the end of an ongoing theologization of the law in ancient Israel, following the Deuteronomic centralization of the cult (Josiah) and the establishment…

Torah Shrine

(312 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] Almost every Jewish and Samaritan synagogue contains a repository for the Torah scroll(s). There is archaeological evidence of Torah shrines (Dura-Europos: II); there are also representations in Palestinian mosaic floors (Beth-Shean, Hammat…

Justus of Tiberias

(111 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] Jewish historian of the 1st century ce. His works are only known through the polemical remarks of Josephus ( Vita 336ff.) and references by and excerpts in Christian authors (Julius Africanus, Eusebius, Photius, Diogenes Laertius). Justus wrote a history of the Jewish Revolt, in which he had…

Megillat Taʿanit

(338 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] ( Meg. Taʿan.), “Scroll of fasts,” lists 35 days on which, because of joyous events in the past, fasting (V, 1), and in some cases also mourning, are forbidden. The Aramaic list, following the Nisan year, goes back to the time of the Second Temple, even though Hananiah ben Hiscia ( b. Šabb. 13b) or his son Eleazar, known from Josephus ( Bell. II 409), is named as its author; it was completed only in the 2nd century ce (first mentioned in m. Taʿ an. 2:8). In addition to Purim (Feasts and festivals: III, 1) and the lesser Pesach (Num 9:9–12), dates are mentioned th…

Ishmael ben Elisha

(199 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] Along with Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph", Ishmael was one of the most important rabbinical scholars of the Tannaitic period (c. 100 …

Qaddish

(268 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[English Version] (»heilig«), kurzes hebr.-aram. Gebet, welches in verschiedenen Versionen überliefert ist und, neben doxologischen Formeln, Bitten um das Kommen der Königsherrschaft Gottes und um Frieden enthält. Das Halb-Q. wird im Wechsel mit einem Vorbeter zu Beginn und bes. am Schluß der Hauptteile der Liturgie (Gebet: XI.) rezitiert (dann oft mit zusätzlic…

Toraschrein

(280 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[English Version] . Fast jede jüd. und samaritanische Synagoge enthält einen Aufbewahrungsort für die Torarolle(n). T., die archäologisch (Dura-Europos: II.) und durch Abb. auf Mosaikfußböden in Palästina (Beth-Shean, Hammat-Tiberias [Mosaik-Kunst: III., Abb.2]) nachgewiesen werden können, sind für die Antike in der architektonischen Form von Aedicula, Nische und Apsis bekannt. Der T. ruht in der Regel auf einer festen Plattform, die sich im Zentrum einer Wand befindet, die nach Jerusalem weist. B…

Tora

(2,877 words)

Author(s): Achenbach, Reinhard | Lehnardt, Andreas | Liss, Hanna | Ochs, Peter
[English Version] I. Altes TestamentDer Begriff T. (תּוֹרָה) wird meist von dem Verbum ירה/jrh, »zeigen«, Hifil, »unterweisen«, abgeleitet. In der israelit. Weisheit (Weisheitsliteratur: II.) bez. er die ethische und rel. Unterweisung durch Eltern (Spr 1,8; 4,1; 6,20; 31,26) oder Weisheitslehrer (Spr 13,14) sowie die sakrale Anweisung durch Priester (Jer 18,18). Als Bez. für das Gesetz (: II.; LXX: n̆ο´μος/nómos) steht er am Ende der sukzessiven Theologisierung des Gesetzes im Alten Israel im Gefolge der dtn. Kultuszentralisation (Josia/Josiareform) u…

Segen und Fluch

(3,412 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Steymans, Hans Ulrich | Lehnardt, Andreas | Fitzgerald, John T. | Greiner, Dorothea | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionsgeschichtlichS. und F. erscheinen aus religionswiss. Sicht als dichte, komplexe Begriffe, die sich schwer in einem einheitlichen, alle rel. Symbolsysteme übergreifenden Konzept zusammenfassen lassen. S. und F. sind nicht primär als Gegensätze, sondern als parallele, polyvalente Begriffe zu verstehen, welche unterschiedliche Formen von rel. Kommunikation zum Ausdruck bringen. Als komplexe Vorgänge bilden sie eine Kondensierung unterschiedlicher Kodierungsebenen rel. Bo…