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(2,082 words)

Author(s): Reeg, Gottfried
1. Term Synagōgē is a Greek term meaning “gathering, conventicle,” used first by Philo (15–10 b.c.–a.d. 45–50), then by Josephus (ca. 37–ca. 100), and also in the NT for a place of gathering. The Hebrew equivalent is bēt ha-kĕneset (Aram. bē kĕništā), meaning “community house” or “house of the assembly” (from the root kns, “assemble”). In the Egyptian diaspora and in Josephus we also find the term proseuchē, “place of prayer.” Other terms such as sabbateion (house in which a Sabbath service was held) are infrequently used. M. Luther’s (1483–1546) translation Judenschul in the NT is based on Yid. Schul


(1,835 words)

Author(s): Reeg, Gottfried | Börner-Klein, Dagmar
[German Version] I. Antiquity 1. The Greek word συναγωγή/ synagōgḗ (cf. LXX), like כְּנֶסֶת/ kneset, orig. meant “assembly”; only later did it come to mean “place of assembly” (Heb. בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת/ bet ha-kneset). It is therefore uncertain, for example, whether Acts 6:9 refers to congregations of Hellenistic Jews or their synagogues. Other synonymous terms were also common: προσευχή/ proseuchḗ


(1,527 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Reeg, Gottfried | Dan, Joseph | Moltmann, Jürgen
[German Version] I. Old Testament The word shekhinah (שְׁכִינָה), a postbiblical noun from the root שׁכן/ škn, “settle, dwell,” denotes an aspect of God’s presence in the world, usually translated as “indwelling” or “habitation.” The term indwelling suggests the Egyptian theology of cultic images, according to which the deity in heaven “descends” upon his image in the earthly temple and “unites” with it (Assmann). The earliest reference to the Old Testament shekhinah theology is in 1 Kgs 8:12f., in Solomon’s words at the dedication of the temple; it was substantially transformed over the course of several centuries. The shekhinah theology of the preexilic period was rooted in a theology of the temple (II, 4) or Zion (Isa 8:18; Ps 46:6*; De…


(3,214 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Otto, Eckart | Reeg, Gottfried | Krawietz, Birgit | Ogris, Werner
[German Version] I. Concept Talion is derived from the Roman lex talionis, in which it referred to a regulated act of retribution – in keeping with a legal norm that was meant to place limitations on self-administered justice. This stands in contradiction to the general understanding of talion as “doing as you are done by,” also in the sense of self-administered justice. In modern usage, talion is thus particularly understood in the sense of blood revenge or vendetta. The latter meaning is th…

Shammai ha-Zaken/School of Shammai

(292 words)

Author(s): Reeg, Gottfried
[German Version] Shammai, called “the Elder,” lived around the turn of the eras. According to the chain of tradition in m. ’Abot 1:1ff., he and Hillel formed one of the so-called pairs who received and handed on the Torah revealed to Moses. The rabbinic texts that mention him are highly stylized and must be considered literary constructs with little basis in historical reality. He is rarely mentioned in isolation ( Mek. ŠbY on Exod 20:8 [ed. Epstein & Melamed, 148]). Usually he serves as a foil to Hillel ( b. Šabb. 30b–31a: Hillel’s patience in contrast with Shammai’s testiness; thei…


(5,698 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Reeg, Gottfried | Sänger, Dieter | Strohm, Christoph | Andersen, Svend | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics and Ethics – VI. Practical Theology I. Old Testament The designation Decalogue (“ten words”) for the series of ten commandments derives from the Greek translation of the Hebrew ʾaśeret haddebārîm (δεκάλογος “ten words”). It is employed in late deuteronomic theory in Deut 10:4 for the Decalogue, in Deut 5:6–21 and by the post-dtr. …


(2,013 words)

Author(s): Reeg, Gottfried | Friedrichs, Lutz
[German Version] I. Early Judaism The Hebrew word for pericope, parasha (פָּרָשָׁה, pl. פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת), comes from the root פרש/ prš, “divide, separate” and means “portion, section.” It appears twice in the Bible in the sense of “exact amount” (Esth 4:7; 10:2). In rabbinic literature, it is used almost exclusively for a portion of the Bible, varying in length. As the names of various parashiyyot suggest, a fixed division may be assumed ( Gen. R. 36.9; b. Ber. 9b–13a). The Masorah of the Hebrew Bible distinguishes between an open – petuḥa, from פתח/ ptḥ, “open” – parasha, starting at the …


(6,592 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Wischmeyer, Wolfgang | Köpf, Ulrich | Strohm, Christoph | Hauptmann, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. The Early Church – III. Middle Ages, Reformation, Counter-reformation – IV. The Modern Period – V. Martyrs of the Orthodox Church – VI. Judaism – VII. Islam – VIII. Missiology I. History of Religion The term martyrium (Greek μαρτύριον/ martúrion) was coined in early Christianity, where it denotes a self-sacrificial death in religious conflict as a witness to faith Historical and systematic references are found in many contexts, in which comparable terms impl…


(4,021 words)

Author(s): Jödicke, Ansgar | Mathys, Hans-Peter | Reeg, Gottfried | Wengst, Klaus | Köpf, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Dogmatics and Ethics I. Religious Studies Humility is an attitude of conscious abasement (Humiliation) and submission. Some modes of expressing humility, such as postures or gestures, can be traced to biological roots; others are conventional, for example a “humble glance” or foot wash…


(1,723 words)

Author(s): Reeg, Gottfried | Friedrichs, Lutz
[English Version] I. Antikes JudentumDas hebr. Wort für Perikope, Parasha (פָּרָשָׁה, Pl. פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת), leitet sich von der Wurzel פרשׁ/prsˇ, »abtrennen, absondern«, ab und bedeutet »Abgetrenntes, Abgeteiltes, Abschnitt«. Bibl. ist es zweimal in der Bedeutung »genaue Angabe« belegt (Est 4,7; 10,2). In der rabb.…


(7,228 words)

Author(s): Felber, Anneliese | Hutter, Manfred | Achenbach, Reinhard | Aune, David E. | Lang, Bernhard | Et al.
[English Version] I. Namen und Begriffe 1.TeufelProfangriech. δια´βολος/diábolos, von διαβα´λλω/diabállō, »auseinanderbringen«, daher Bedeutungen wie »anklagen, verleumden, täuschen«, lat. diabolus, daraus dt. T. In der LXX wird hebr. שָׂטָן/śāṭān mit diábolos übers., was am besten mit »Widersacher« wiedergegeben wird. In den Apokryphen fin…


(2,579 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Otto, Eckart | Reeg, Gottfried | Krawietz, Birgit | Ogris, Werner
[English Version] I. Zum BegriffT. ist abzuleiten vom röm. lex talionis und meinte dort einen geregelten Vergeltungsakt (Vergeltung) gemäß einer Rechtsnorm, die als solche Selbstjustiz eindämmen sollte. Dies steht im Widerspruch zum allg. Verständnis von T. als »Gleiches mit Gleichem vergelten«, auch im Sinne von Selbstjustiz. Im heutigen Sprachgebrauch versteht man daher auch speziell die Blutrache oder Vendetta als T. Diese wird somit zugespitzt auf eine unmittelbare Rache im Gegensatz zur entwickelten Justiz. Diese qualitat…


(1,363 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Reeg, Gottfried | Dan, Joseph | Moltmann, Jürgen
[English Version] I. Altes TestamentMit Sh. (שְׁכִינָה), einer nachbibl. Nominalbildung der Wurzel שׁכן/škn, »s…


(1,644 words)

Author(s): Reeg, Gottfried | Börner-Klein, Dagmar
[English Version] I. Antike 1. Das griech. Wort συn̆αγωγη´/synagōgē´ (vgl. LXX) bedeutet urspr. wie כְּנֶסֶת/kneset »Versammlung« und erst später »Ort der Versammlung« (hebr. בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת/bet ha-kneset); so ist es z.B. strittig, ob Apg 6,9 Gemeinden hell. Juden oder deren S. gemeint sind. Daneben sind noch andere synonyme Termini gebräuchlich: προσευχη´/proseuchē´ (»Gebet/Gebetsstätte«) – fast ausschließlich in der griech. Diaspora verwendet – und (α῞γιος) το´πος/(hágios) tópos bzw. aram. אַתרָא קְדֽישָׁא/'atra qedisha (»hl. Ort«) – v.a. in Israel in Inschri…