Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(5 words)

[see taʾrīk̲h̲ ].

Ḳudsī, Muḥammad D̲j̲ān

(205 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, poet at the Mughal court in India. He was born and raised in Mas̲h̲had, from where he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, and was then engaged in the grocery trade before he went to India. In 1041/1632 he joined the ranks of the Emperor S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s poets. Dāg̲h̲istānī, the author of the Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ , states that Ḳudsī preceded Kalīm as poet-laureate to S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān, but this is not confirmed by contemporary sources. He died in Lahore in 1056/1646-7 and, according to Ād̲h̲ar’s Ātas̲h̲-kada , his remains were removed to K̲h̲urāsān. Ḳudsī’s poems ar…

Muḥammad Saʿīd Sarmad

(419 words)

Author(s): Nizami, K.A.
, Indo-Muslim poet, mystic and free-thinker of the 11th/17th century, who was executed by the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Awrangzīb [ q.v.] for going about naked and holding heterodox views. Originally he belonged to a Jewish family of Kās̲h̲ān but, later, he embraced Islam and received instruction in philosophy from Mullā Ṣadrā S̲h̲īrāzī [ q.v.] and Mīrzā Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Findiriskī [ q.v. in Suppl.]. In 1042/1632 he came to Sind as a merchant. In That́t́a he fell in love with a Hindu youth and suffered such emotional disturbance that he gave up his vocation, went ab…

ʿUnwān, Muḥammad Riḍā

(240 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, also known by his surname Čalabī, 17th century Persian poet, died probably between 1078/1667 and 1083/1672. Luṭf ʿAlī Beg Ād̲h̲ar, in his tad̲h̲kira , includes the poet among those of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, and refers to him as a native of Tabrīz ( Ātas̲h̲kada , i, ed. Ḥasan Sādāt Nāṣirī, Tehran 1336/1957, 132). Muḥammad Ṭāhir Naṣrābādī reports having met ʿUnwān in Mas̲h̲had, where the latter’s father, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ Tabrīzī, a wealthy individual, had sought residence ( Tad̲h̲kira-yi Naṣrābādī , ed. Waḥīd Dastgirdī, Tehran 1361/1982, 396-7). Not much i…

Ṭāhir Waḥīd

(588 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīrzā Muḥammad , Persian poet, court historian, epistle writer and state dignitary, born during the beginning of the 11th/17th century, and died most probably in 1110/1698-9. He was born at Ḳazwīn into a family whose members had served in the state chancery. His father, Mīrzā Ḥusayn K̲h̲ān, was a prominent citizen of Ḳazwīn. Ṭāhir Waḥīd learned the traditional subjects taught during his time, and acquired a good training in accountancy and secretarial work. He served as secretary to two successive prime ministers, Mīrzā…

Ḳalīm Abū Ṭālib

(303 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Persian poet, was born according to contemporary evidence, in Hamadān. His life, until he went to India, was spent chiefly in Kāshān, and therefore he is often called Kās̲h̲ānī. After receiving his education in S̲h̲īrāz during his early youth, he visited India in D̲j̲ahāngīr’s reign, but returned to Persia in 1028/1618-9. Two years later, however, he migrated permanently to India. On his arrival, he sought his fortune in various ¶ provinces, including Deccan, where he attached himself to Mīr D̲j̲umla. Following Shāhd̲j̲ahān’s accession, Kalīm entered the imperia…

Luṭf ʿAlī Beg

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
b. Āḳā K̲h̲ān , Persian anthologist and poet, who is also known by his penname Ād̲h̲ar which he adopted after having used the names Wālih and Nak̲h̲at previously. He was descended from a prominent Turcoman family belonging to the Begdīlī tribe of Syria (Begdīlī-i S̲h̲āmlū) which had joined the Ḳi̊zi̊lbās̲h̲ movement [ q.v.] in the 9th/15th century. Afterwards, the family settled down in Iṣfahān. Many of his relatives served the later Ṣafawids and Nādir S̲h̲āh as administrators and diplomats. Luṭf ʿAlī Beg was born on Saturday 20 Rabīʿ II 1134/7 F…


(1,651 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī, Persian poet of the 11th/17th century. The precise date of his birth is not known, but it is presumed that he was born around 1010/1601-2. His father, Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm, was a leading merchant of Tabrīz. When S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I (r. 985-1038/1587-1629) made Iṣfahān his capital he caused many merchants from Tabrīz to settle there, in the quarter named ʿAbbāsābād. At this time Ṣāʾib’s father moved to Iṣfahān, where the poet is said to have been born. In his verses, however, Ṣāʾib often …

Humām al-Dīn b. ʿAlāʾ Tabrīzī

(398 words)

Author(s): Meredith-Owens, G.M.
, Persian poet of the Mongol period who was for some time vizier of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. He was held in great esteem by contemporary men of standing such as Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh and S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad D̲j̲uwaynī, the Ṣāḥib-Dīwān . In 686/1287-8 he accompanied the latter to Rūm for the sequestration of the property of the Parwāna Muʿīn al-Dīn—an event to which he alludes in his poems. Towards the end of his life he became the disciple of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Saʿīd Farg̲h̲ānī, and after performing the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ , retired to the k̲h̲ānḳāh which he had founded at Tab…


(474 words)

Author(s): Naficy, Said
( bābā ), pseudonym of a celebrated Persian poet whose patronymic, like his first name, is unknown. He was a native of S̲h̲īrāz where he started by helping his brother, a cutler by trade, and it was on that account that he first took the pseudonym Sakkākī when he began to write poetry. In his youth, which was spent at S̲h̲īrāz, he lived a life of debauchery, and then made a journey to Herāt where he became acquainted with the great poet Ḏj̲āmī, but his poetry was not apprecia…


(538 words)

Author(s): Naficy, Said
, the pseudonym of three Persian poets: 1) Mīrzā Muḥammad Iṣfahānī, a scholar and native of that town. During his travels in the middle of his life he attached himself to Tīmūr S̲h̲āh, amīr of Afghanistan (1187-1207/1773-93) and became his court poet. 2) Mīrzā ʿAbbās, son of Āḳā Mūsā Bistāmī, born in 1213/1798 in ʿIrāḳ, where his father was travelling. As a youth he travelled in Māzanderān and Karmān where he started his career as a poet, at first using the pseudonym “Miskīn”. After taking the n…


(433 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, Aziz
, Ḥāmid b. Faḍl Allāh of Dihlī (d. 942/1536), poet and Ṣūfī hagiographer. He travelled extensively throughout the Dār al-Islām from Central Asia to the Mag̲h̲rib, and from Anatolia to Yemen, meeting a number of prominent Ṣūfīs including D̲j̲āmī [ q.v.], with whom he had interesting discussions in Harāt. His travels constitute a link ¶ between the Indian Ṣūfī disciplines and those of the rest of the Muslim world; while it is possible that the style of the Persian poetry of the court of Harāt travelled to India in his wake, creating the sabk-i Hindī of the 10th/16th c…

Ṭālib Āmulī

(429 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, an Indo-Persian poet of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, b. at an unknown date ( ca. 987/1579?), d. 1036/1626-7. A native of Āmul in Māzandarān, he was a cousin of the famous physician and poet Ḥakīm Ruknā Kās̲h̲ī, who had gone to India before Ṭālib’s arrival in that country. Despite the fact that his works include ḳaṣīdas in praise of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I [ q.v.], there is no evidence that he was ever attached to the Ṣafawid court, and his earliest patrons seem to have been high officials. Via Kās̲h̲ān and Marw, he eventually migrated to seek his fortune i…


(823 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of the Indo-Muslim Persian poet, Muḥammad Ḥusayn, who flourished during the 10th/16th and early 11th/17th centuries, d. 1021/1612-13. He belonged originally to Nīs̲h̲āpūr, from where he went to Kās̲h̲ān during his youth. There he participated in poetical contests with the leading local poets of the day. He was among the first Persian poets who migrated from their native land ¶ during the Ṣafawid period to seek their fortune at the Mug̲h̲al court. On his arrival in India ( ca. 993/1585-6), he attached himself to ʿAbd al-Raḥīm K̲h̲ān-i K̲h̲ānān [see k̲h̲ān k̲h̲ānān …

Burhān al-Dīn G̲h̲arīb

(717 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, i.e., s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ muḥammad b. nāsir al-dīn maḥmūd , sister’s son of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Aḥmad Nuʿmānī Hānsawī (for him see Ak̲h̲yār 67) and one of the earliest and most devoted disciples, and a Ḵh̲alīfa of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Niẓām al-Dīn of Delhī (d. 725/1325). He was born in Hānsī (East Pand̲j̲āb) in 654/1256 and died in Deōgīr (Dawlatābād) on 11 Ṣafar 738/8 Sept. 1337 ( Nuzha after Rawḍat al-Awliyāʾ ), according to others ( e.g., Ḵh̲azīna ) in 741/1340-1, and was buried at Rawḍa (Ḵh̲uldābād). After spending his early years in Hānsī, he went to Delhī and studied fiḳh , uṣūl , and ʿar…

Isḥāḳ, Adīb

(853 words)

Author(s): Rizzitano, U.
, journalist and scholar of Syrian origin and Catholic by religion, but Egyptian by adoption. Born in 1856 at Damascus, where he studied under the Lazarist Fathers, he was, while still very young, obliged to accept a modest post in the Customs office in order to help his family, though he did not cease to pursue his Arabic studies more deeply and to ex tend his knowledge of French and Turkish, in which he obtained a high degree of proficiency. His family’s removal to Beirut gave him the opportunity of forming fruitful contacts with the representatives of the Arab cultural awakening which ¶ was t…

Zulālī-yi K̲h̲wānsārī

(551 words)

Author(s): Losensky, P.E.
, Persian poet from the reign of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I [ q.v.]. Reports on his date of death range from 1016/1607 to 1037/1627-8, but the most probable seems to be 1024-5/1615-16. Little is known about his life. He was born in K̲h̲wānsār to the northwest of Iṣfahān and divided his life between these two towns. Although reputedly quiet and retiring by nature, Zulālī had close contacts with the Ṣafawid court, particularly with Mīr Bāḳir al-Dāmād Astarābādī [ q.v.], his principal patron. Although Zulālī composed g̲h̲azals and ḳaṣīdas , his enduring claim to fame is the collection of seven mat̲h̲nawīs…


(650 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl. | Massé, H.
Sīstānī , Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. D̲j̲ūlūg̲h̲ , the celebrated Iranian poet, a native of the town of Sīstān (cf. Yāḳūt, s.v.; Ḳazwīnī, Nuzhat , s.v.), as he says in a hemistich: “I place (other towns) after Sīstān, because it is my (native) town”. The tak̲h̲alluṣ Farruk̲h̲ī unites the ideas of happiness and physical beauty. His father, Ḏj̲ūlūg̲h̲ (according to ʿAwfī and Dawlats̲h̲āh) or Kūlūg̲h̲ (according to Ad̲h̲ar and Hidāyat) was in the service of the governor of the province of Sīstān. Accordin…


(631 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of K̲h̲wād̲j̲a Ḥusayn, Indo-Persian poet of the 10th/16th century, d. 996/1587-8. Born in Mas̲h̲had, T̲h̲anāʾī, writing about himself in the introduction to his dīwān , states that, despite having talent, he initially lacked perseverance and that he took up the poetic vocation following a dream which offered him the requisite guidance. He eventually found for himself a generous patron in the person of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm Mīrzā, governor of K̲h̲urāsān, who was a poet in his own right using D…


(493 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(late 9th century-988/late 15th century-1580), the tak̲h̲alluṣ [ q.v.] or pen-name of an Indo-Muslim poet, Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad, who wrote at the courts of the Mug̲h̲al emperors Humāyūn and Akbar [ q.vv.]. According to most writers he was born in Transoxania at Miyānkāl, a district situated between Samarḳand and Buk̲h̲ārā, but stayed a long time in Kābul, whence he is also known as Kābulī. When fifteen years old he is said to have visited D̲j̲āmī (d. 898/1492 [ q.v.]) at Harāt, and spent some seven years in the poet’s company. Subsequently he went to India o…
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