Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(465 words)

Author(s): Nazim, M. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Aḥmad b. Ḥasan , called S̲h̲ams al-Kufāt "sun of the capable ones", vizier of sultans Maḥmūd and Masʿūd of G̲h̲azna [ q.vv.]. He was a foster-brother of Maḥmūd, and had been brought up and educated with him. His father had been ʿāmil of Bust under Sebüktigin, and apparently stemmed from Maymand in Zābulistān; but on a charge of misappropriation of the revenue, he was put to death. In 384/994, when the Amīr Nūḥ b. Manṣūr the Sāmānid conferred on Maḥmūd the command of the troops of Ḵh̲urāsān, Maḥmūd put …

Aḥmad b. Muḥammad

(123 words)

b. ʿabd al-ṣamad abū naṣr , vizier of the G̲h̲aznawid Masʿūd b. Maḥmūd (after the death of his celebrated predecessor al-Maymandī (423/1032). He began his career as steward ( katk̲h̲udā ) of Ḵh̲wārizm S̲h̲āh Altūntās̲h̲, and having become the vizier of Masʿūd he managed to retain this office during the latter’s reign. After the defeat at Dandānaḳān, Masʿūd, who himself retired to India, sent him as attendant of his son Mawdūd to Balk̲h̲ in order to defend this city against the Sald̲j̲ūḳs. Also after the accession of Mawdūd (43…


(227 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.). 1. In Islamic law, this means the rescission of a sale or transaction (synonym, mutāraka ); see for lexical aspects of the term, LA 1, x, 282; TA 1, v, 535; Freytag, Lexicon , iv, 476. 2. In mediaeval Eastern Islamic administrative usage, it denotes the contract of service of officials, in accordance with the term’s further meaning of “the laying down of conditions for an agreement with some one”. We possess the texts of two muwāḍaʿa s made by early Ghaznavid viziers with their sovereign: one made by Aḥmad b. Ḥasan al-Maymandī [ q.v.] with Sultan Masʿūd b. Maḥmūd [ q.v.] on his appointment…


(516 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, properly, Abū ʿAlī Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbbās (d. 423/1032), the last wazīr of Maḥmūd [ q.v.] of G̲h̲azna. Becoming governor of K̲h̲urāsān at an early age, Ḥasanak went on the pilgrimage in 414/1023 and allowed himself to be persuaded (Bayhaḳī, 209) to return via Cairo and there to accept a robe of honour ( k̲h̲ilʿa ) from the Fāṭimid Caliph al-Ẓāhir. This resulted in his being suspected by the ʿAbbāsid Caliph al-Ḳādir of being an adherent of the Fāṭimid Caliphate. After his return to G̲h̲azna, therefore, the ʿAbbāsid Caliph demanded of Maḥmūd that he should have him executed «as a Ḳarmaṭī» [ q…


(778 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a district of eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān, ¶ thus designated in the Islamic sources of the later mediaeval period, deriving its name from its urban centre Lamg̲h̲ān (later form, Lag̲h̲mān). It comprises the fertile plain of the middle course of the Kābul River, much of it lying to the north and east of Kābul city [ q.v.] itself. It is bounded on the north by the mountains of Kāfiristān [ q.v.], modern Nūristān, and includes the lower reaches of the Alingār and Alis̲h̲ang Rivers; on the south and east, it adjoins, and was sometimes considered (e.g. by Bābur) to includ…


(637 words)

Author(s): | Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northwestern Afg̲h̲ānistān (lat. 35° 55′ N., long. 64° 67′ E.), lying at an altitude of 2,854 feet/870 m. on the upper reaches of the Āb-i Maymana, one of the constituent streams of the Āb-i Ḳayṣar which peters out in the desert beyond Andk̲h̲ūy [ q.v.] and the sands of the Ḳi̊zi̊l Ḳum [ q.v.]. The site of the settlement seems to be ancient. The Vendidad speaks of Nisāya, and the ?8th century Armenian geography of Iran records Nsai-mianak = MP * Nisāk-i Miyānak “the Middle Nisā”, possibly identical with Ptolemy’s Νισαία in Margiana (Marquart, Ērānšahr , 78-9)…


(618 words)

Author(s): Clinton, J.W.
, Abu ’l-Nad̲j̲m Aḥmad b. Ḳawṣ b. Aḥmad , Dāmg̲h̲ānī , was the third and last (after ʿUnṣurī and Farruk̲h̲ī [ q.vv.]) of the major panegyrists of the early G̲h̲aznawid court. Very little is known of his life, and that little is derived exclusively from his poetry. Later tad̲h̲kira writers have expanded and distorted this modicum of information with a few, readily refuted speculations. What can be ascertained with reasonable certainty is that he spent his youth, presumably in Dāmg̲h̲ān, acquiring an encyclopaedic knowledg…


(688 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a family settled in K̲h̲urāsān, of Arab descent, which provided secretaries and viziers for the Sāmānids and early G̲h̲aznawids [ q.vv.] in the 4th/10th and early 5th/11th centuries (from which of the ʿUtbas of early Islamic times they were descended does not seem to be specified in the sources). 1. Abū d̲j̲aʿfar ( ism and nasab variously given), vizier under the Sāmānid amīr ʿAbd al-Malik I b. Nūḥ I, from 344/956 to 348/959 and again, in company with Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Balʿamī [ q.v.], under his successor Manṣūr I b. Nūḥ I, a few years later. His policy aimed at s…


(1,376 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Burton-Page, J.
(a.), active participle from the form IV verb as̲h̲rafa , literally “overseer, supervisor, controller”, the title of an official who appears at various times and with various duties in the history of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate and its successor states, from the Mag̲h̲rib to the eastern Islamic lands. 1. In the Arab and Persian lands. ¶ The office of is̲h̲rāf seems basically to have been a financial one. The supervision of financial operations was in the first century or so of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate usually entrusted to the dīwān al-zimām/al-azimma [see dīwān. i. The caliphate]; in the re…

Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ b. Masʿūd Rūnī

(1,495 words)

Author(s): de Bruijn, J. T. P.
, Persian poet of the Ghaznawid period, was born and raised at Lahore, according to ʿAwfī, the earliest and most trustworthy authority for his life. The nisba Rūnī has been related by Indian writers of the 16th and 17th centuries to a place by the name of Run in the vicinity of Lahore (cf. e.g. Badāʾūnī, Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ , i, Calcutta 1864, 37; Farhang-i Ḏj̲ahāngīrī and Burhān-i ḳāṭiʿ , s.v.). But already Badāʾūnī had to admit that this place could not be found anywhere in that area. Others (e.g. Luṭf-ʿAlī Beg Ād̲h̲ar, Ātas̲h̲kada , lith. Bombay 1299/1882,…


(1,275 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḥasan Aḥmad, Persian poet at the G̲h̲aznawid court during the early 5th/11th century. The external information about his life is mosdy anecdotal. It is said that he was born at Balk̲h̲, became an orphan at an early age and in his youth earned a living as a merchant. A story, told in some sources, about a robbery during one of his travels was mistakingly associated with him (cf. Storey-de Blois, v/1, 234-5). His career as a poet began under the patronage of the Amīr Abu ’l-Muẓaffar Naṣr (d. 412/1021-2), the military governor ( sipahsālār ) of his brother ¶ Sultan Maḥmūd [ q.v.] in K̲h…


(1,439 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Müge Göçek, F.
(a.). 1. In mathematics, muṣādarāt are premisses or postulates (Grk. αἰτήματα). See al-K̲h̲wārazmī, Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm , ed. van Vloten, 203; E. Wiedemann, Beitrag XIV , in SBPMS Erl ., xl (1908), 4 and n. 2= Aufsätze zur arabischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte , Hildesheim 1970, i, 403. 2. In the administrative terminology of the mediaeval Islamic caliphate, muṣādara is firstly “an agreement with someone over the payment of taxation due”, according to al-K̲h̲wārazmī, op. cit., 62 (the synonym of mufāraḳa ); cf. C.E. Bosworth, Abū ʿAbdallāh al-K̲h̲wārazmī on the technical terms of th…


(8,430 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F. | Bosworth, C.E. | Wansbrough, J. | Colin, G.S. | Busse, H. | Et al.
, one of many Arabic words used to express the concept of “gift”, and the preferred legal term for it, see following article. The giving of gifts, that is, the voluntary transfer of property, serves material and psychological purposes. In the pre-history of man, it probably antedates the contractual payment for goods and services. In Islam, it has retained its inherited functions as an important component of the social fabric and has exercised a considerable influence on political life. Literature (in the narrow sense…


(20,279 words)

Author(s): Sanders, P. | Chalmeta, P. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Groot, A.H. de | Burton-Page, J.
(a), official court ceremonies, both processional and non-processional. The whole range of ceremonial, including protocol and etiquette, is called also rusūm other terms found frequently are mawsim [ q.v.] and mawkib . Mawākib [ q.v.] refer specifically to solemn processions, but seem also to have had the more general meaning of audiences (for the ʿAbbāsids, see references in D. Sourdel, Le vizirat ʿabbāside de 749 à 946, Damascus 1960, ii, 684, n. 3; for the Fāṭimids, see e.g. al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , iii, 494: d̲j̲ulūs [ al-k̲h̲alīfa ] fi ’l-mawākib; ayyām al-mawākib ). 1. Under the …