Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Masd̲j̲id

(77,513 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J. | Hillenbrand, R. | Burton-Page, J. | Andrews, P.A. | Pijper, G.F. | Et al.
(a.), mosque, the noun of place from sad̲j̲ada “to prostrate oneself, hence “place where one prostrates oneself [in worship]”. The modern Western European words (Eng. mosque , Fr. mosquée , Ger. Moschee , Ital. moschea ) come ultimately from the Arabic via Spanish mezquita . I. In the central Islamic lands A. The origins of the mosque up to the Prophet’s death. The word msgdʾ is found in Aramaic as early as the Jewish Elephantine Papyri (5th century B.C.), and appears likewise in Nabataean inscriptions with the meaning “place of worship…

Aḳ Masd̲j̲id

(178 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W.
“White Mosque”, name of two towns: 1. Town in the Crimea (local pronunciation: Aḳ Mečet), founded in the 16th. century by the k̲h̲āns of the Crimea in order to protect their capital, Bāg̲h̲če Sarāy, from nomad incursions. It was the residence of the crown prince ( kalg̲h̲ay sulṭān ), whose palace was outside the town, according to Ewliyā Čelebi, vii, 638-41. The town was destroyed by the Russians in 1736, and rebuilt in 1784 under the name of Simferopol (although the local population continued to use the Turkish name). 2. A fortress on the Si̊r Daryā, which belonged to the Ḵh̲ānate …

al-Masd̲j̲id al-Ḥarām

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, the name of the Mosque of Mecca. The name is already found in the pre-Islamic period (Horovitz, Koranische Studien , 140-1) in Ḳays b. al-K̲h̲aṭīm, ed. Kowalski, v. 14: “By Allāh, the Lord of the Holy Masd̲j̲id and of that which is covered with Yemen stuffs, which are embroidered with hempen thread” (?). It would be very improbable if a Medinan poet meant by these references anything other than the Meccan sanctuary. The expression is also fairly frequent in the Ḳurʾān after the second Meccan period (Horovitz, op. cit.) and in various connections; it is a grave sin on the part ¶ of the polythei…

al-Masd̲j̲id al-Ạkṣā

(1,722 words)

Author(s): Grabar, O.
, literally, “the remotest sanctuary.” There are three meanings to these words. 1. The words occur in Ḳurʾān, XVII, 1: “Praise Him who made His servant journey in the night ( asrā ) from the sacred sanctuary ( al-masd̲j̲id al-ḥarām ) to the remotest sanctuary ( al-masd̲j̲id al-aḳṣa ), which we have surrounded with blessings to show him of our signs.” This verse, usually considered to have been revealed during the Prophet’s last year in Mecca before the Hid̲j̲ra, is very difficult to explain within the context of the time. There is no doubt that al-masd̲j̲id al-ḥarām is the then pagan sanct…

D̲j̲āmiʿ

(5 words)

[see masd̲j̲id ].

Maḳṣūra

(5 words)

[see masd̲j̲id ].

Mosque

(5 words)

[see masd̲j̲id ].

Imām

(7 words)

[see imāma , masd̲j̲id ].

Muʾad̲h̲d̲h̲in

(9 words)

[see ad̲h̲ān ; masd̲j̲id. I. G. 4].

Muballig̲h̲

(7 words)

[see dikka ; masd̲j̲id I.D.2.e].

ʿAlī Riḍā-i ʿAbbāsī

(111 words)

, calligraphist in the reign of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās, who wrote out inscriptions for some of the great mosques of Iṣfahān (Masd̲j̲id-i S̲h̲āh, Masd̲j̲id-i Luṭf Allāh) as well as for the dome over the tomb of the shrine of ʿAlī al-Riḍā and the shrine of Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Rabīʿ in Mas̲h̲had. He was also appreciated as a copyist of manuscripts, several of which in his handwriting are still preserved. Some miniatures are also attributed to him, but he is not to be confounded with Riḍā-i ʿAbbāsī [ q.v.]. Bibliography I. Hubbard, ʿAlīRiẓā-iʿAbbāsī, calligrapher and painter, Ars Islamica, 1937, 282-91 Th. W. A…

Ustuwā

(62 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, said to mean “uplands”, a district of mediaeval northern K̲h̲urāsān, comprising the fertile plain, famed for its grain production, through whose western part the Atrek river [ q.v.] flows. The plain lies between the modern Kūh-i Hazār Masd̲j̲id and Kūh-i Bmālūd/Kūh-i S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān mountain chains. Its urban centre was K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān, the later Kūčān [ q.v.]. See kūčān for further details. (Ed.)

[al-]sahla

(75 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally, “level, smooth place”. There must have been several places in the Arabic lands named after this obvious topographical feature. Yāḳūṭ, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iii, 290-1, mentions a village in Bahrayn and a masd̲j̲id of that name in Kūfa (perhaps the mosque also known as the Ẓāfir one or that of ʿAbd al-Ḳays, cf. Hichem Djaït, Al-Kūfa , naissance de la ville islamique, Paris 1986, 298). (Ed.) Bibliography Given in the article.

Rāyčur

(157 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town and district of South India, now in the Gulbargā division of the Indian Union state of Karnataka, before 1947 in the Ḥaydarābād princely state of British India (lat. 16° 15′ N., long. 77° 20′ E.). An ancient Hindu town formerly part of the kingdom of Warangal, it passed to the K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī Sultans of Dihlī in the 8th/14th century, then to the Bahmanīs and, after Awrangzīb’s Deccan conquests, to the Mug̲h̲als. Rāyčūr has interesting Islamic monuments. The Bahmanī Ek mīnār kī masd̲j̲id has its minaret in the corner of the courtyard [see manāra. 2. In India]. The fortifications and gat…

Nāgawr

(771 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Burton Page, J.
, modern spelling Nagaur, Nagor, a town and district in the division of Jodhpur in the Rajasthan state of the Indian Union, formerly within the princely state of Jodhpur in British India; the town lies in lat. 27° 12′ N. and long. 73° 48′ E. at 75 miles/120 km. to the northeast of Jodhpur [see d̲j̲ōdhpur ], and in 1971 had a population of 36,433. The walled town is said to have derived its name from its traditional founders, the Nāga Rād̲j̲puts. In the later 12th century it was controlled by the Čawhān (Čahamāna) ruler of Dihlī Pṛithvīrād̲j̲a III, then by the G̲h̲ūrid Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad [see g̲h̲…

T́́hat́́t́ā

(636 words)

Author(s): Crowe, Yolande
2. Monuments. Over the centuries T́hat́t́ā has endured invasions, destruction as well as the fluctuations of the Indus river bed. This is reflected in the chequered history of its monuments. Two early mausoleums of saints remain in the most western part of the city by what was once an enlarged part of the river bed. Presumably after the sack of the town by the Portuguese in 1555, boats were built in that area under Akbar. Two maḥalla s formed the western part of the town and in the northern part stood the masd̲j̲id Walī-i-Niʾmat, which appears to have been used as the Ḏj̲āmiʿ masd̲j̲id

Dihlī Sultanate, Art

(540 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J.
With the exception of the coinage [see sikka ] and a very few ceramic fragments (a few described in J. Ph. Vogel, Catalogue of the Dehli museum of archaeology, Calcutta 1908; for the pottery fragments of the ʿĀdilābād excavations see H. Waddington, in Ancient India , i, 60-76), the only body of material for the study of the art of the Dihlī sultanate is monumental. Most of the ¶ monuments are in Dihlī itself and are described s.v. dihlī . The remainder are mostly described under the appropriate topographical headings, and are listed here in more or less chronological order. The first major und…

Dāmg̲h̲ān

(166 words)

Author(s): Wilber, D.N.
a town on the main highway between Tehran and Mas̲h̲had, some 344 km. east of Tehran; also, a station on the railway between Tehran and Mas̲h̲had. At an altitude of n 15 metres, it has a population of 9,900 (1950). One km. to the south of the town is the mound called Tappa Ḥiṣār where excavations conducted by the University of Pennsylvania in 1931 uncovered prehistoric burials and the plaster-decorated remains of a building of the Sāsānid period. The oldest Islamic structure—possibly the earlies…

Śrīrangapat́t́anam

(200 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Europeanised form Seringapatam , a town of South India (lat. 12° 25′ N., long. 76° 42′ E.). In British India, it came within the princely state of Mysore [see mahisur , maysūr ], and is now in the Mysore District, the southernmost one of the Karnataka State of the Indian Union. It is situated on an island in the Cauvery River to the north-north-east of Mysore city. Named after its shrine to the Hindu god Śri Raṅga (Viṣṇu), it became in the 17th century the capital of the Hindu Rād̲j̲ās of Mysore and then, after 1761, of the Muslim sultans Ḥaydar ʿAlī and Tīpū Sulṭān [ q.vv.]. The latter’s oppositio…

Barūd̲j̲ird

(179 words)

Author(s): Lockhart, L.
(or burūd̲j̲ird ), a town in the VIth ustān (Luristān) of Persia, situated on the road Connecting Hamadān with Ahwāz via Khurramābād; it is the seat of a farmāndār (deputy governor). The population is 47,000. The town stands on an extensive and well-cultivated plain that is bounded on the west by the Zagros mountains. The climate is temperate in summer, but cold in winter. There are some 900 shops most of which are in the two large bazaars. The Masd̲j̲id-i Ḏj̲āmiʿ (cathedral mosque) dates from the Mongol period. It was at Barūd̲j̲ird that the Sald̲j̲ūḳ prince Barkyārūḳ [ q.v.] in 485/1093 de…
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