Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition


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(484 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), passive participle of form IV verb ṭ-l-ḳ , “to loose the bond ( ḳayd ) of an animal, so as to let it free” (e.g. Muslim, D̲j̲ihād , trad. 46; Abū Dāwūd, D̲j̲ihād, bāb 100). The term is also applied to the loosening of the bowstring (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, D̲j̲ihād, bāb 170), of the garments, the hair, etc. Thence the common meaning absolute, as opposed to restricted ( muḳayyad ), and further the accusative muṭlaḳ an “absolutely”. The use of the term is so widely diffused that a few examples only can be given. In grammar, the term mafʿūl muṭlaḳ denotes the absolute object (…

Ḥasan b. Nūḥ

(299 words)

Author(s): Poonawala, I.
b. Yūsuf b. Muḥammad b. Ādam al-Bharūčī al-Hindī , Mustaʿlī-Ṭayyibī Ismāʿīlī savant. According to his own statement he was born and brought up in K̲h̲ambhāt (Cambay) in India, and received his early education there. It is not known when and by whom the surname “Bharūčī”, sc. from Bharūč or Broach, [see Bharoč ], was given to him. Urged on by a thirst for knowledge, he states, he renounced family, left his country, travelled to Yaman, and became a student of Ḥasan b. Idrīs, the twentieth dāʿī muṭlaḳ . The books read by him with his teacher in various branches of the ʿulūm al-daʿwa


(558 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, (1) Ibrāhīm b. al-Ḥusayn b. Abi ’l-Suʿūd al-Hamdānī , the second dāʿī muṭlaḳ of the Ṭayyibī Ismāʿīlīs in the Yaman. According to ʿUmāra, not supported by Ṭayyibī sources, the Ṣulayḥid Queen al-Sayyida in 526/1132 appointed him chief dāʿī but then transferred the headship to the Amīr of ʿAdan, Sabaʾ b. Abi ’l-Suʿūd b. Zurayʿ, who supported the claim of the Fāṭimid al-Ḥāfiẓ to the Imāmate. If the report is reliable, Ibrāhīm may have been deposed for his sympathy with the claim of al-Ṭayyib. After the death of the dāʿī al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb b. al-Ḥasan in 533/1138, the first Ṭayyibī dāʿī muṭlaḳ, D̲h̲uʾ…

Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī

(302 words)

Author(s): Poonawala, I.
, ¶ from Ḥārit̲h̲, a well-known tribe and a branch of the Hamdān [ q.v.] confederation, was a prominent figure in the Mustaʿlī-Ṭayyibī Ismāʿīlīs of Yaman. After the death of his teacher ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Ibrāhīm al-Walīd in 554/1159, he was appointed by Ibrāhīm al-Ḥāmidī [ q.v.], the second dāʿī muṭlaḳ , along with the latter’s son Ḥātim to assist him in the affairs of the daʿwa . On the dāʿī Ibrahim’s death in 557/1161, when Ḥātim b. Ibrāhīm became the next dāʿī muṭlaḳ, he was promoted to the rank of maʾd̲h̲ūn and was stationed in Ṣanʿāʾ as the dāʿī’s deput…


(1,276 words)

Author(s): Daftary, F.
, a branch of the Ismāʿīliyya [ q.v.] with several subdivisions. The Ṭayyibiyya split off from the rest of the Mustaʿlī Ismāʿīlīs soon after the death in 524/1130 of the Fāṭimid caliph al-Āmir bi-Aḥkām Allāh, recognised as the twentieth imām of the Mustaʿlī Ismāʿīlīs. The official Mustaʿlī daʿwa organisation in Cairo recognised al-Āmir’s cousin and successor on the Fāṭimid throne, al-Ḥāfiẓ, and the later Fāṭimids as the rightful imāms . However, some Mustaʿlī groups in Egypt and Syria as well as the majority in Yaman acknowledged the rights …

ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲aʿfar

(616 words)

Author(s): Poonawala, I.
b. ibrāhīm b. al-walīd al-anf al-ḳuras̲h̲ī , the mentor of ʿAlī b. Ḥātim al-Ḥāmidī [ q.v.], whom he succeeded as the fifth dāʿī muṭlaḳ of the Mustaʿlī-Ṭayyibī Ismāʿīlīs in Yaman in 605/1209, came from a prominent al-Walīd family of Ḳurays̲h̲. His great-grandfather Ibrāhīm b. Abī Salama was a leading chieftain of the founder of the Ṣulayḥid dynasty ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Ṣulayḥī, and he was sent by the latter on an official mission to Cairo. He studied first under his uncle ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn and then under Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī. After al-Ḥārit̲h̲ī’s death, Ḥātim b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḥāmidī [ q…

ʿAlī b. Ḥanẓala b. Abī Sālim

(220 words)

Author(s): Poonawala, I.
al-maḥfūzī al-wādiʿī al-hamdānī , succeeded ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Walīd [ q.v.] as the sixth dāʿī muṭlaḳ of the Mustaʿlī-Ṭayyibī Ismāʿīlīs in Yaman in 612/1215. As the country was passing through a critical period of internal strife after its occupation by the Ayyūbids, the dāʿī pursued a policy of non-interference in politics. He maintained good relations both with the Ayyūbid rulers of Ṣanʿāʾ and the Yāmid sulṭāns of Banū Ḥātim in D̲h̲amarmar which enabled him to carry out his activities without much difficulties. He died on 12 or 22 Rabīʿ I 626/8 or 18 February 1229. Both his compositi…


(289 words)

Author(s): Khalidi, W.A.S.
, an Egyptian ṭariḳa founded by ʿAlī b. Ḥid̲j̲āzī b. Muḥammad al-Bayyūmī al-S̲h̲āfīʿī, born c. 1108/1696 and died in Cairo in 1183/1769. After joining the Aḥmadiyya and Ḵh̲alwatiyya (the latter through the Demirdas̲h̲iyya) ṭarīḳas , Bayyūmī, by developing a d̲h̲ikr characterised by particularly loud and emphatic utterance, established a virtually independent ṭarīḳa of his own. Another feature of his ṭarīḳa was its appeal to the poorest classes and specifically to highwaymen, many of whom, after a period of chastisement at Bayyūmī’s hands, swelled the ra…

Amīnd̲j̲ī b. D̲j̲alāl b. Ḥasan

(267 words)

Author(s): Poonawala, I.
, an eminent Mustaʿlī-Ṭayyibī Ismāʿīlī jurist of India, was the son of the twenty-fifth dāʿī muṭlaḳ . He lived in Aḥmadābād in Gud̲j̲arāt and died there on 13 S̲h̲awwāl 1010/6 April 1602. His works deal mainly with jurisprudence and are considered a great authority on legal matters after the works of al-Ḳāḍī al-Nuʿmān [ q.v.]. The following works have been preserved: 1. Masāʾil Amīnd̲j̲ī b. Ḏj̲alāl , in the form of questions, answers, and anecdotes bearing on legal issues, hence also known as Kitāb al-Suʾāl wa ’l-d̲j̲awāb . The book contains many problems tha…


(417 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
(adj, can be taken as a subst.), pl. afrād , used of the individual, and so with the meanings of only , solitary , unique , incomparable; the half , that is to say one of a pair or couple (pl. firād , Ḳāmūs root f.r.d); and other derivative meanings. The word has been used to denote Allāh, as the single Being who has no parallel: al-fard fī ṣifāt Allāh (al-Layt̲h̲, Lisān , iv, 327/iii, 331a), but it does not occur in the Ḳurʾān or in ḥadīt̲h̲ s as an epithet of Allāh. It is for that reason that al-Azharī ( ibid.) found fault with this usage. There is every reason for believing’ that al-fard was at that time…

Sulaymān b. Ḥasan

(454 words)

Author(s): Poonawala, I.
(d. 1005/1597), the grandson of Yūsuf b. Sulaymān, the twenty-fourth dāʿī muṭlaḳ of the Mustaʿlī-Ṭayyibī Ismāʿīlīs, was a deputy of Dāwūd b. ʿAd̲j̲abs̲h̲āh (d. 997/1589), the twenty-sixth dāʿī in Muk̲h̲ā [ q.v.], the famous coffee port and a great trade centre on the Red Sea coast of Yaman. Three years after the succession of Dāwūd b. Ḳuṭbs̲h̲āh as the twenty-seventh ¶ dāʿī Sulaymān claimed the succession for himself. The great majority of the community in India upheld the succession of Dāwūd b. Ḳuṭbs̲h̲ah, whereas a minority, mainly in Yaman, accepted Su…


(416 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh (Abu ’l-Faḍl, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar) Muḥammad (Aḥmad) b. Abī Yazīd Ṭayfūr al-Sad̲j̲āwandī al-G̲h̲aznawī al-Muḳriʾ al-Mufassir al-Naḥwī al-Lug̲h̲awī, an innovative Ḳurʾān reader and philologist, died 560/1165 (?) He lived and worked in Sad̲j̲/g/kāwand, a small ¶ village half-way to the east of the route from Kābul to G̲h̲aznī in the vicinity of Sayyidābād, dominated by a high-lying citadel, now in ruins, called Tak̲h̲t-i or S̲h̲ār-i (S̲h̲ahr-i) Ḏj̲ams̲h̲īd. On the foot of this mount is placed the mausoleum of Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a Aḥmad (Muḥammad). Here, even today, the S̲h̲ayk…

Ṭāhir Sayf al-Dīn

(425 words)

Author(s): Toorawa, Shawkat M.
, Abū Muḥammad, 51st dāʿī al-muṭlaḳ , or absolute dāʿī (addressed as Bāwa Ṣāḥib and Sayyidnā ), vicegerent of the 21st Imām’s (al-Ṭayyib) descendants, and leader of the small, predominantly Gud̲j̲arātī, Ismāʿīlī merchant community of Dāwūdī Bohorās [ q.v.]. He was born in Bombay in 1304/1886, assumed headship of the dawat ( = daʿwa ) from ʿAbd Allāh Badr al-Dīn in 1330/1912, and ruled till his death in Matheran in 1384/1965, when he was succeeded by his son, Muḥammad Burhān al-Dīn (b. 1334/1915). He is buried in the “Rawḍat Ṭāhira” mausoleum built by his son, now a ziyāra site for Bohorās. Thou…


(1,622 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, a family which has held the spiritual and political leadership of the Banū Yām [ q.v.] and the Sulaymānī Ismāʿīlī community [see ismāʿīliyya ] in Nad̲j̲rān and Yaman since the 11th/17th century. The name evidently refers to the Banū Makram of Hamdān who are settled in Ṭayba in the Wādī Ḍahr and in some other villages to the west of Ṣanʿāʾ There is evidence that the family came from Ṭayba, an old Ismāʿīlī stronghold. A pedigree linking them rather to a Makram b. Sabaʾ b. Ḥimyar al-Aṣg̲h̲ar is fictitious. The term Makārima is often also extended to their followers. The earliest known member of…


(870 words)

Author(s): Nikitine, B.
, a heterodox S̲h̲īʿī sect of the later 19th and early 20th centuries in Persia. It is named after a certain Ag̲h̲ā Muḥammad Kāẓim Tunbākū-furūs̲h̲ of Iṣfahān, known as Ṭāwūs al-ʿurafāʾ “Peacock of the (Ṣūfī) initiates” from his elegant dress, who broke away from the Niʿmat-Allāhiyya [ q.v.] Ṣūfī order. On the death of Raḥmat ʿAlī S̲h̲āh S̲h̲īrāzī, who represented the Niʿmat-Allārīs in Iṣfahan, Ṭāwūs refused to recognise his successor there, and, on his expulsion from Iṣfahān in 1281/1864-5, moved to Tehran, dying there in 1293/1876. He was succeeded as ḳuṭb of …

ʿAbd al-Karīm, Ḳuṭb al-Dīn b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḏj̲īlī

(845 words)

Author(s): Ritter, H.
, a Muslim mystic, descendant of the famous ṣūfī ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī, was born in 767/1365 and died about 832/1428. Little is known of his life, as the biographical works do not mention him. According to some of his own statements in al-Insān al-Kāmil , he lived from 796/1393 until 805/1402-3 in Zabīd in Yaman together with his s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Ismāʿīl al-Ḏj̲abartī. In 790/1387 he was in India. He wrote about thirty books and treatises, of which al-Insān al-Kāmil fī Maʿrifat al-Awāk̲h̲ir wa ’l-Awāʾil is the best known (several editions prin…


(602 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, generally accounted the second king of the Pīs̲h̲dādid dynasty [ q.v.] in legendary Iranian epic history, coming after the first world-king Kayūmart̲h̲ or Gayōmard and the founder of the Pīs̲h̲dādids, Hūs̲h̲ang [ q.v.]. Certain Islamic sources make him the first king of his line, and the length of the reign attributed to him—such figures as an entire millennium or 600 years are given—shows the importance attached to him. His name appears in the Avesta as Tak̲h̲mō urupa azinavε̇a , with the first element tak̲h̲ma , meaning “strong, courageous” (cf. the name Rustam/Rustahm) and urupi . azi…


(857 words)

Author(s): Poonawala, I.
, a branch of Mustaʿlī-Ṭayyibī Ismāʾīlīs, so called after Sulaymān b. Ḥasan [ q.v.], who claimed the succession for himself after Dāwūd b. ʿAd̲j̲abs̲h̲āh as the twenty-seventh dāʿī muṭlaḳ . They are predominantly to be found in Yaman, where their total number may currently be placed at more than 70,000, living mainly in the northern districts and on the northern border region between Yaman and Saudi Arabia. Besides being represented amongst the Banū Yām of Nad̲j̲rān, the Sulaymānīs are settled in Ḥarāz…


(747 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
(rarely, dāʿiya ), “he who summons” to the true faith, was a title used among several dissenting Muslim groups for their chief propagandists. It was evidently used by the early Muʿtazilites [ q.v. in EI 1]; but became typical of the more rebellious among the S̲h̲īʿīs. It appears in the ʿAbbāsid mission in K̲h̲urāsān; and in some Zaydī usage. It was ascribed to followers of Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭāb. It was especially important in the Ismāʿīlī and associated movements (which were called daʿwa , “summons”), where it designated generically the chief authorized representatives of the imām . Among the …

D̲j̲ahāndār S̲h̲āh

(531 words)

Author(s): Hardy, P.
, Muʿizz al-Dīn , Mug̲h̲al emperor regnabat 21 Ṣafar 1124/29 March 1712 to 16 Muḥarram 1125/11 February 1713. Born 10 Ramaḍān 1071/10 May 1661, eldest son of Bahādur S̲h̲āh [ q.v.], at the time of his father’s death he was governor of Multān. Pleasure-loving and indolent, he was able to participate actively in the struggle among Bahādur S̲h̲āh’s sons for the throne only through the support of the ambitious D̲h̲u ’l-fiḳār K̲h̲ān, mīr bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī and ṣūbadār of the Deccan who was anxious to exclude ʿAẓīm al-S̲h̲aʾn from the succession and to win the wizāra for himself. After three days fight…
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