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Creta et Cyrenae

(155 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
[German version] After the conquest by Q. Caecilius Metellus (69-67 BC; Liv. per. 100; Plut. Pompey 29),  Crete was organized as a double province together with  Cyrenae (Roman province since 74 BC), ( C. et C.). A short-term separation between the two occurred as a result of M. Antonius' declaration of independence (43 BC). In 27 BC, Augustus re-established the old order (senatorial province). The seat of the government was  Gortyne. After the Diocletian reorganization, the double province was dissolved (Cyrenae went to Libya Pe…

Administrative history of Crete and the Cyrenaica in the Roman period (96 BC – 6th cent. AD)

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, E.
I. Cyrenaica The coastal strip of North Africa from the Great Syrte at the Philainon Bomoi (Arae Philaenorum) in the west to Catabathmus Megas in the east took its name of Cyrenaica from the Theran colony of Cyrene. Together with Ptolemaïs, Berenice, Arsinoë and Apollonia, this city formed the so-called Libyan Pentapolis. The highlands of the Cyrenaica (up to 900 m a.s.l.), which still have plentiful springs today, were particularly fertile in antiquity and thus relatively densely populated. Wheat…


(425 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile (in the MSS very frequently Tremellius), attested from the 2nd. cent. BC onwards. The six generations of praetorian ancestors on whom T. [3] prided himself (Varro, Rust. 2,4,2) are quite believable. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Cn. As tribune of the people, he successfully interceded in 168 BC against an extension of the term served by the censors (Liv. 45,15,9) who had passed him over in the lectio senatus . As praetor in 159 BC, he insulted the pontifex maximus who gave him a penalty ( multa ). A people's court confir…


(350 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig | Schmitt, Tassilo | Fündling, Jörg
Röm. Gentilname (hsl. sehr häufig Tremellius), seit dem 2. Jh. v. Chr. bezeugt. Die sechs Generationen praetorischer Vorfahren, deren T. [3] sich rühmt (Varro rust. 2,4,2), sind durchaus glaubhaft. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig [English version] [1] T., Cn. Interzedierte als Volkstribun 168 v. Chr. erfolgreich gegen eine Verlängerung der Amtszeit der Censoren (Liv. 45,15,9), die ihn bei der lectio senatus übergangen hatten. 159 v. Chr. wurde er als Praetor vom pontifex maximus wegen dessen Beleidigung mit einer Strafe ( multa ) belegt. Ein Volksgericht be…


(630 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κυρηναία; Kyrēnaía, Lat. Cyrenae). North-east African coastal region of the Cyrenaea (mod. Cyrenaica) with western border at  Arae [2] Philaenorum/Φιλαίνων Βωμοί (mod. Ras el-Aáli) [1. 73f., 469] and its eastern one near  Catabathmus megas (mod. Solum); cf. Str. 17,3,22 [2. 509f.]. The region took its name from the Theraean   apoikía Cyrene.  Cyrene was part of the Libyan  pentapolis, together with Barca (mod. Barka), later outstripped by Ptolemaïs (mod. Tolemaide), also Euhesperides, later Berenice (mod. Be…


(591 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[English version] (Κυρηναία, lat. Cyrenae). Nordostafrikan. Küstengebiet der Kyrenaia (h. Cyrenaika), mit westl. Grenze bei Arae [2] Philaenorum/Φιλαίνων Βωμοί (h. Ras el-Aáli) [1. 73f., 469] und östl. Grenze bei Katabathmos megas (h. Solum); vgl. Strab. 17,3,22 [2. 509f.]. Das Gebiet war nach der theraiischen apoikía Kyrene benannt. Kyrene bildete zusammen mit Barke (h. Barka), das später von Ptolemaïs (h. Tolemaide) überflügelt wurde, ferner mit Euhesperides, später Berenike (h. Benghazi), Taucheira, später Arsinoe …


(468 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μαρμαρική; Marmarikḗ). Region on the north coast of Africa between Egypt and the Cyrenaica. The borders of M. varied over time: during the time of the 30th dynasty (380-342 BC), the region of the Marmaridae stretched from the border of the Libyan district (near Apis) to the west (Ps.-Scyl. 108 [GGM 1,82-84]). According to Ptol. 4,5,2-4, however, the eastern border of the district of M. ( sic!) only began near Pétras Mégas Limḗn (west of Catabathmus Mégas), i.e. at the westernmost point of Egypt. Ptol. (4,4,2; 5f.) puts the western border of M. to the eas…

Libyes, Libye

(517 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Klaus (Jena)
[German version] (Λίβυες; Líbyes, Λιβύη; Libýē, Latin Libya). However liberally the Greeks treated the term Libýē in the course of the centuries [1], they were just as unconcerned in their use of the corresponding ethnicon as well. Indeed this is - in contrast to the toponym - not yet attested in the Homeric epics but the Greeks were familiar with the name as a description for their indigenous neighbours at the latest from the settlement of ‘Libya’ by colonists ( Colonization) from Thera in the 7th cent. BC (S…

Egypt from the 4th to 1st cents. BC

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Wittke, A.-M.
I. The Ptolemaic kingdom (323 BC–12 August 30 BC) (map A) The Ptolemies established themselves in Egypt, which Ptolemy I initially (323 BC) held as a satrapy, after the death of Alexander the Great (Ptolemy’s assumption of the royal title: 305 BC). They ruled with the help of the immigrant Graeco-Macedonian upper class (functionaries, colonists, esp. in the region of the drained Lake Moiris/Faiyum, and klerouchoi), who were socially and politically dominant, but they always had to fulfil the expectations of the indigenous elite (priests, later Egyptian klerouchoi and functionaries…


(1,586 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Κρήτη, Krētē, Latin Creta). [German version] A. Settlement geography C. is the largest Greek island, with an east-west extension of 250 km and a north-south extension of max. 60 km. The narrowest part is the Isthmus of Hierapytna in the east. The island's topography is shaped by its mountains. Three large mountain ranges dominate: in the west the ‘White Mountains’ (  Leúka órē , 2,482 m), in the centre the  Ida Mountains (Piloritis, 2,456 m) and in the east the  Dicte Range (highest elevation 2,147 m) with the Lassithi Plateau (moun…

Kommentarergänzungen (Quellen, Literatur, Tabellen)

(22,352 words)

Seite 4 Quellen Hekataios: Agathemeros, GGM 2, 1882, 471 § 1; Diog. Laert. 2,2; Eratosth. fr. 1B 5 Berger; Favorinus, FHG 581; Hekat. FGrH 1 F 18a; Ptol. 8,1,2 f. Herodot: Aristot. meteor. 2,2,354a; Hdt. 1,202; 2,31–34; 4,36; 4,42; 4,45; 4,48–50 Eratosthenes: Agathemeros, GGM 2, 1882, 472 § 5; Eratosth. fr. 3B 6 p. 224 ff.; 3B 11 Klaudios Ptolemaios: Ptol. Geographike Hyphegesis 1,6–14 und passim. Literatur Hekataios: K. Brodersen, Terra Cognita (Spudasmata 59), 1995, 78 f.; K. von Fritz, Die griechische Geschichtsschreibung 1, 1967, 48–76; 2, 1967, 32–53; F. Jacoby, s.v. Hekataios […


(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…


(18,684 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος). PN mit der Bed. “kriegerisch” (nicht: “feindlich”), zum ersten Mal in Hom. Il. 4,228 belegt; im 5. und 4. Jh. v. Chr. kommt der Name in Makedonien vor, von wo er noch im 4. Jh. nach Thessalien gelangte (IG IX 2, 598). Der Name wird mit der Dyn. der Lagiden prominent und viel getragen, nicht nur in Äg., wo er anfangs vielleicht die Solidarität mit der Dyn. dokumentierte, sondern auch anderswo. Es gibt zahlreiche Verformungen und Umbildungen. Ptolemaier Berühmte Personen: P. [1] I. Soter, P. [6] III. Euergetes; der Sohn Caesars P. [22]; der Naturwissenschaftl…