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(264 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Commerce | Ḫattusa | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Rome (Ἰκόνιον; Ikónion, modern Konya). The most important city in Lycaonia developed out of a prehistoric settlement inhabited by the Phrygians (8th cent. BC); only in Xen. An. 1,2,19 is it mentioned as easternmost city of Phrygia, at the crossroads of major trading and military routes. In 25 BC, I. became part of the new province of Galatia along wit…


(2,330 words)

Author(s): Blessing, Patricia
KONYA (Ar. Qunia, L. Iconium, Gk. Ikonion), a city in central Anatolia, present-day Turkey (lat 37° 52′ N, long 32° 29′ E) with a population of 2,180,149 in 2017. Hardly anything of the Roman and Byzantine city remains in the modern city of Konya; the Byzantine church of Hagios Amphilochus, known locally as Eflatun Camii (Eflatun Mosque), was destroyed in the 1920s (Eyice). Many spolia were used in the Saljuq rebuilding of the late antique and Byzantine city walls, together with new carvings. Documented in Charles Texier’…
Date: 2021-06-17

Amphilochius of Iconium

(174 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] (c. 340/345–400). Amphilochius was the cousin of Gregory of Nazianzus and a student of Libanius. After practicing law in Constantinople c. 365–371, he became an ascetic. In the fall of 373, he became metropolitan of the new ecclesiastical province of Lycaonia, which he reorganized and strengthened (church discipline, new dioceses, conflict with pagans and heretics, etc.). As an ally of Basil the Great, he contributed significantly to the victory of Basil's doctrine of the Trinity (Neo-Niceanism) in Asia Minor – for example, by his Epistola synodica against the …

Amphilochius of Iconium

(125 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] A. ( 340/345 in  Cappadocia, † after 394) was a student of  Libanius and rhetorician in Constantinople. In 370 he returned to Cappadocia and at the instigation of  Basilius the Great became bishop of  Iconium in the newly created province of  Lycaonia in 373. He created an ecclesiastical administration in his episcopacy and defended it against the  Messalians and other heretics. Through his cousin  Gregorius of Nazianze, who converted him, a close friendship developed with the Cappadocians and later with circles in the capital.…

Ἀμφιλόχιος, ὁ (English)

(50 words)

Contributor(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos | Dorn, Martin
Amphilochius of Iconium (ca. 340-…


(88 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)


(96 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Ḫattusa (Λύστρα; Lýstra), modern Hatunsaray; south-west of Iconium (Turkey). Founded by Augustus as a Roman colony in the province of Galatia [1. 51-53, 153-156, 195-197]. Christianized by the Apostle Paul during his 1st and 2nd missionary journey (Acts 14:6-20; 16:1-3; 2 Tim 3:11). Around 370 annexed to the new province of Lycaonia. Attested as a diocese (suffragan of Iconium) from 380 [2. 200].…


(98 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Diadochi and Epigoni (Λάρανδα; Láranda). Hellenistic city in southern Lycaonia, modern Karaman, became part of Galatia in 25 BC and under Antoninus Pius belonged to the treís eparchíai. Member of the koinón Lykaonías with the honorary title of ( Sebastḗ) Mētrópolis (coins) [1. 25-32, 43f.]. Under Diocletianus annexed to the province of Isauria, around 370 to Lycaonia. Bishops known from the 3rd cent., from about 370 suffragan of Iconium [2. 197f.]. Belke, Klaus (Vienna) Bibliography 1 H. v. Aulock, Mz. und Städte Lykaon…

 Instructio fidei catholicae ad soldanum

(357 words)

Author(s): Tolan, John
Instruction in the Catholic faith to the sultan Alexander III Date: Probably 1177 or 1178 Original Language: Latin Description The text, preserved in the correspondence of Peter of Blois, who was part of the papal curia in 1177-78, takes the form of a short letter (8 columns in the PL text) addressed by the pope to the sultan of Iconium (who is not named). The pope says that the sultan has made known, through letters and messengers, that he wishes to conver…

Thecla, Saint

(109 words)

Author(s): Jensen, Anne
[German Version] Thecla of Iconium, apostle and martyr, was one of the most revered saints of early Christianity. The originally oral tradition of her life is now preserved as the “Acts of Thecla” section of the Acts of Paul, where it has been combined in part with ascetic Encratite elements. The historical nucleus is found in the second section of the narrative, which has clear echoes of authentic acts of the martyrs. …


(156 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, W.
[English Version] von Iconium (ca. 340/45–400), Vetter  Gregors von Nazianz, Schüler des Libanios, Advokat in Konstantinopel ca. 365–371, danach Asket, organisierte seit Herbst 373 als Metropolit der neuen Provinz Lykaonien dort die kirchl. Neuordnung (Kirchenzucht, Bistumsgründungen, Kampf gegen Heiden und Häretiker u.a.). Als Mitstreiter des Basilius von Caesarea trug er maßgeblich bei zur Durchsetzung von dessen Trinitätslehre (Neunicaenismus)…


(140 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Δέρβη; Dérbē). City in the south of Lycaonia, now Devri Şehri, north-east of  Laranda. Known first as the residence of Antipater of D. (Cic. Fam. 13,73; Str. 12,1,4; 6,3). The Apostle Paul visited the city on his first and second missionary journeys (Acts 14,6; 16,1). Assigned by Ptolemy to the ‘Cappadocian’ stratēgía Antiochiánē (Ptol. 5,6,16); from the middle of the 2nd cent. AD member of the koinòn Lykaonı́as which was limited to south Lycaonia [1. 38-40, 67]. A Lycaonian diocese from no later tha…


(152 words)

Author(s): Binns, J.
[English Version] (ca.300 Iconium, Kleinasien – ca.350), Eremit, wurde während der Christenverfolgungen (: I.) gefangengesetzt, nach seinem Biograph unter Aurelian (gest.275), doch wahrscheinlich später. Er ging nach Jerusalem und ließ sich in einer Höhle bei Pharan nieder, die zuvor ein Räuberversteck gewesen war. Weitere Mönche stießen zu ihm, und Bf. Macarius von Jerusalem (314–333) weihte die Kirche des neuen Klosters. Er gründete zwei weitere Klöster, Douka auf dem Berg der V…


(132 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)
[German version] (Κόραλις λίμνη ( Kóralis límnē), erroneously often found as Κάραλις ( Káralis) [1. 3]). One of the most important lakes of central Anatolia between Lycaonia and Pisidia, today's Beyşehir Gölü. Only Str. 12,6,1 refers to it by the name of C.; in the Byzantine Middle Ages, it is usually called Pousgoýse límnē (Πουσγούση λίμνη). The drain of the lake flows through the south-eastern Trogítis límnē (today's Suğla Gölü), which is significantly smaller and largely drained today, and it irrigates as Çarşamba Suyu the plain south of  Iconium [2]. It must be distinguished from the Cabalitis palus named in Liv. 38,15,1 (correctly, as opposed to the traditionally used name of Caralitis palus; today's Söğüt Gölü) on the Lycian-Carian border [1. 74]. …


(172 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Καλύκαδνος; Kalýkadnos). Most important and abundant (Amm. Marc. 14,3,15) river in Cilicia Tracheia ( Cilices) in Isauria, whose southern tributary (modern Gevne Çayı) rises in the border region of Pamphylia and Isauria, passes through the Cietis to the south of Germanicopolis to its confluence near  Claudiopolis [2] with the other tributary (Gök Çayı) from the region of Bozkır in the border region of Lycaonia and Isauria; then called Göksu, it flows via Seleucia (Roman bridge from the time of Vespasian) and reaches the Mediterranean after c. 15 km (navigable in that stretch, cf. Amm. Marc. 14,8,1), where its deposits have formed Cape Calycadnon ( Zephyrion). Its valley provided a communication link between Seleucia and  Iconium, verified by a milestone (from the time of Titus) [1]. In the Middle Ages, the C. was named after the town of Seleucia (Saleph). The emperor Frederick I Barbarossa died in its waters in AD 1190. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography …


(168 words)

Author(s): Binns, John
[German Version] (c. 300, Iconium, Asia Minor – c. 350, as a hermit) was imprisoned during persecuation (Persecutions of Christians: I) according to his biographer under Aurelian (died 275), but more likely later. He went to Jerusalem and settled in a cave at Pharan, which had previously been a robbers' hide-out. He was joined by other monks, and archbishop Macarius of Jerusalem (314–333) consecrated a church in the new monastery. He founded two other monasteries…


(723 words)

Author(s): Belke, Klaus (Vienna)
(Λυκαονία; Lykaonía). [German version] A. Geography, population, economy Country in central Asia Minor with changing boundaries which extended from Tatta Limne (modern Lake Tuz) in the north to the Taurus in the south and from the Coralis Limne (modern Lake Beyşehir) in the west to Mount Karaca in the east. Most of the area was taken up by the steppe-like plateaus about Iconium (Konya) and in the south and southwest by Tatta Limne. In the west and south, L. included part of the weste…


(240 words)

Author(s): Nicholas Sims-Williams
Chrisꏂtian martyrological text. A version of this article is available in print …
Date: 2015-03-27


(334 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, τὸ ‘ΗρακλέωΣ Κάστρον des (Theophanes, i. 482, de Boor; ἡ τοῦ ‛ΗρακλέοΣ ΚωμόπολιΣ of Michael Attaliata, p. 136 (ed. Bonn); ‘Ηράκλεια or Χώρα τοῦ ‘ΗρακλέοΣ in the epic of Digenis Acritas; the Hiraḳla of the Arabs ed. Houtsma, Recueil etc. iii. 11; iv. 5, 249, 260, Turk. and occasionally archaised , , the Reclei, Erachia of the Crusaders (Tomaschek, Zur histor. Topographie von Kleinasien, p. 84, 88, 92), Araclie in Bertrandon de la Broquière, p. 104 et seq., ed. Ch. Schefer, was a fortress on the Byzantine frontier on the road from Cilicia to Iconium and was repeatedly tak…

Canonical Lists

(349 words)

Author(s): Aland, Barbara
[German Version] are lists of the biblical books of the Old Testament and New Testament (cf. Bible II, 2; III, 2) compiled in the Early Church either by individuals or by synods. They possessed authoritative character, though in practice this was not always evident. The earliest canonical indices are the Muratorian Fragment (see also Canon) from Rome (c. 200) and the index of the Codex Claromontanus (3rd cent.). 1 and 2 Thessalonians along with Philemon are inadvertently omitted here, as is Hebrews, while Barnabas, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Acts of Paul, and the Apocalypse of Peter are i…
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