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(524 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Ḵh̲yber Pass , one of the principal passes (together with the Kurram, Tochi, Gomal and Bolan Passes) through the mountain barrier separating the Indus valley plains from Afg̲h̲ānistān. The pass runs northwestwards for ca. 33 miles/50 km. from the Shadi Bagiar opening 3 miles/5 km. beyond Fort Jamrud, itself 7 miles/12 km. from Peshawar, to the barren plain of Loi Dakka, which then stretches to the Kabul River banks. The highest point of the pass is at Landi Kotal (3,518 ft/1,280 m.), an important market centre for the region,…


(1,227 words)

Author(s): Shari Lowin
Located approximately 150 kilometers (93 miles) north of Medina, the oasis of  Khaybar was one of the largest Jewish settlements in Arabia and played an important role in the consolidation of Muḥammad’s political power. Like the Jewish tribes in Medina, the Khaybari Jews derived much of their wealth from commerce and agriculture. They also manufactured textiles and metal implements, and stockpiled these in their fortresses. When the Banū ’l-Naḍīr were expelled from Medina in 624, many found a refuge in Khaybar. Three years after the expulsion, the Muslims turned their sights on Khayb…


(6,335 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, the name of a famous oasis, and of its principal settlement, about 95 miles/150 km. from Medina; the district owes its renown to events which took place there in the years 7 and 20 A.H., not to natural features which distinguish it from other oases in the region. For this reason the ¶ ancient Arab geographers, although they do mention it, provide only the briefest of information about it, giving special praise to the abundance of its palm trees. 1.— Geographical information. Only al-Bakrī and Yāḳūt have devoted to K̲h̲aybar as much as two pages in their Muʿd̲j̲am s: th…


(565 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
ou Ḵh̲yber Pass, un des principaux passages (avec ceux de Kurram, Toči, Gomal et Bolan) à travers la chaîne montagneuse séparant de l’Afg̲h̲ānistān les plaines de l’Indus. La passe s’étend vers le Nord-ouest sur une longeur d’environ 50 km. depuis le Shadi Bagiar qui commence à 5 km. de Fort Jamrud, lui-même à 12 km. de Pes̲h̲awar, jusqu’à la plaine aride de Loi Dakka qui s’étend ensuite jusqu’aux rives du Kābul. Le point le plus élevé de la passe est à Landi Kotal (1280 m.), important marché de l…


(6,027 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
est le nom d’une oasis célèbre — et de son chef-lieu — à environ 150 km. de Médine; la localité doit sa renommée aux événements qui y eurent lieu en 7 et 20 de l’hégire et non à des particularités naturelles qui la distingueraient des autres oasis de la région; c’est pourquoi les anciens géographes arabes, tout en la mentionnant, ne nous fournissent sur elle que des renseignements très brefs en vantant surtout sa richesse en palmiers. 1. — Renseignements géographiques. Seuls al-Bakrī et Yāḳūt ont consacré à Ḵh̲aybar deux pages dans leurs Muʿd̲j̲ams; le premier donne surtout des détails …


(6 words)

 see expeditions and battles Bibliography

Events of Safar 1326 A.H. / 5 March–2 April 1908 A.D.

(1,112 words)

[1171c] Since the great mass of ghazis and their willingness to engage in fierce fighting had made life very difficult for the English, facing severe pressure and constantly being thrown back, they sought escape from their predicament through trickery and deceit and took steps through their policies [1172] to mislead. During this time, on Saturday, the fourth of Safar/8 March 1908, Aman Allah Khan, Muhammad Sharif Khan, and Muhammad Yusuf Khan set off for Kabul from Jalalabad. They were exiles who had been living under difficult conditions in …
Date: 2017-03-02

Events of Jumadi al-Ula of the Year 1315 Hijri/28 September–27 October 1897

(12,544 words)

[76] During these events, Field Marshal Ghulam Haydar Khan Urakza⁠ʾi’s pneumonia and shortness of breath worsened. His Majesty learned of the change in his constitution, his fever, and the severity of his illness in a letter from him. Because of his faithful service and loyalty, His Majesty offered up prayers for the restoration of health and wrote in response, May God grant you good health. Our royal person has always prayed for your welfare, that you be sound and in good health. Make every effort to avoid eating harmful foods so that, if God wills, H…
Date: 2017-03-02


(42 words)

k̲h̲ayl (A, pl. k̲h̲uyūl, ak̲h̲yāl) : in zoology, the equine species. The term has no singular, and like ibil ‘camels’…

Banū ʾl-Naḍīr

(572 words)

Author(s): Shari Lowin
The Banū ʾl-Naḍīr were one of the three major Jewish tribes in Medina (Yathrib) during the time of Muḥammad, along with the Banū Qurayẓa and Banū Qaynuqāʿ. Some Arabic sources provide a genealogy of the Naḍīr (and Qurayẓa) linking them to the biblical Aaron, thus explaining the title al- kāhinān (Ar. the two priestly tribes). Their origins are otherwise murky. For example, the early Arab historian al-Yaʿqūbī, in the second half of the ninth century, maintains that they were Judham Arabs who converted to Judaism and settled in Mount Naḍīr, hence, their name( Taʾrīkh, ed. Houtsma, vol. 2,…


(1,687 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin
, nom d’une grande et puissante tribu Pathān comprenant un nombre de combattants évalué à 50.000, à la frontière Nord-Ouest du Pakistan. Le territoire occupé par les Afrīdīs s’étend des contreforts orientaux du Safīd Kūh à travers la moitié Nord de Tirāh et la passe de Khyber (Ḵh̲aybar [ q.v.]) jusqu’aux régions Ouest et Sud du district de Pes̲h̲āwar. Il est limité à l’Est par les régions colonisées du Pakistan, au Nord par le territoire des Mohmunds, à l’Ouest par les S̲h̲inwārīs, et au Sud par les tribus Ōrakzay et Bangas̲h̲. Les Afrīdīs se …

ʿAbdallāh b. Rawāḥa

(458 words)

Author(s): Mirza, Sarah
ʿAbdallāh b. Rawāḥa (d. 8/629) was a member of the Banū l-Ḥārith clan of the Khazrajī tribe of Medina. At the second ʿAqaba meeting in the month of Dhū l-Ḥijja of the year prior to the Hijra/March of 622, when 72 men and 2 women pledged to defend the Prophet, he was among the twelve Khazrajīs chosen as leaders by his fellow Medinans. After the Hijra, he participated in the battles of Badr, Uḥud, al-Khandaq, al-Ḥudaybiya, and Khaybar. A zealous and outspoken defender of the prophet Muḥammad, his le…
Date: 2020-09-16


(620 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, Banu ’l- , one of the two main Jewish tribes of Medina, settled in Yat̲h̲rib from Palestine at an unknown date, as a consequence of Roman pressure after the Jewish wars. Al-Yaʿḳūbī (ii, 49) says they were a section of the D̲j̲ud̲h̲ām Arabs, converted to Judaism and first settled on Mount al-Naḍīr, whence their name; according to the Sīra Ḥalabiyya (Cairo, iii, 2) they were a truly Jewish tribe, connected with the Jews of K̲h̲aybar [ q.v.]. This seems the more probable, but a certain admixture of Arab blood is possible; like the other Jews of Medina, they bore Arabic na…


(1,353 words)

Author(s): Gräf, E.
, a very ancient, but still existing, Arab tribe. The classical genealogical scheme ʿAnaza b. Rabīʿa (Wüstenfeld, Tab. A 6) has in recent times been changed in the same way as in the case of other tribes such as the Banū ʿAṭiyya in Northern Ḥid̲j̲āz and Wāʾil, the ancestor of the Bakr and Tag̲h̲lib, is taken to be their tribal ancestor; in the most recent genealogies Ḳurays̲h̲ appears above Wāʾil. Whether or not the Rabīʿa groups are inter-related, as implied in the genealogy, they were in any c…

Naḍīr (Banū al-)

(1,026 words)

Author(s): Schöller, Marco
One of several Jewish clans of Medina (q.v.) in pre- and early Islamic times (see jews and judaism; tribes and clans; pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān). In the Islamic tradition, they are usually considered part of the triad of important Medinan Jewish clans that also includes the Banū Qaynuqāʿ (see qaynuqāʿ ) and the Banū Qurayẓa, though often only the Naḍīr and the Qurayẓa (q.v.) are mentioned. The latter two were sometimes called al- kāhinān, “the two priest clans” and Arabic sources provide an Arabicized “Israelite” genealogy of the Naḍīr reaching back to Aaron (q.v.; Hārūn). The actu…


(2,417 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, an ancient small town in the northern Ḥid̲j̲āz, near K̲h̲aybar and, according to Yāḳūt, two or three days’ journey from Medina. This place-name having disappeared, Ḥāfiẓ Wahba in his Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab (Cairo 1956, 15) identified the ancient Fadak with the modern village of al-Ḥuwayyiṭ (pron. Ḥowēyaṭ), situated on the edge of the ḥarra of K̲h̲aybar. Inhabited, like K̲h̲aybar, by a colony of Jewish agriculturists, Fadak produced dates and cereals; handicrafts also flourished, with the weaving of blankets with palm-leaf borders. Fadak owes its fame in the history of Islam to…


(734 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V. | Roded, Ruth
bt. Ḥuyayy b. Ak̲h̲ṭab . Muḥammad’s eleventh wife, was born in Medina and belonged to the Jewish tribe of the Banu ’l-Naḍīr [see al-naḍīr ]; her mother Barra bt. Samawʾal, the sister of Rifaʿa b. Samawʾal, was of the Banū Ḳurayẓa [ q.v.]. Her father and her uncle Abū Yāsir were among the Prophet’s most bitter enemies. When their tribe was expelled from Medina in 4 A.H., Ḥuyayy b. Ak̲h̲ṭab was one of those who settled in K̲h̲aybar [ q.v.], together with Kināna b. al-Rabīʿ, to whom Ṣafiyya was married at the end of 6 or early in 7 A.H.; her age at this time was about 17. The…


(2,270 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, ancien petit bourg du Ḥid̲j̲āz septentrional, proche de Ḵh̲aybar et distant de Médine, selon Yāḳūt, de deux ou trois jours. Comme ce toponyme a disparu, Ḥāfiẓ Wahba a identifié dans sa Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab (Caire 1956, 15) l’ancien Fadak avec l’actuel village d’al-Ḥuwayyiṭ (pron. Ḥowēyaṭ) situé au bord de la ḥarra de Ḵh̲aybar. Habité, comme Ḵh̲aybar. par une colonie de cultivateurs juifs, Fadak produisait des dattes et des céréales; l’artisanat y fleurissait aussi, car on y tissait des couvertures à bordure en feuilles de palmier. Fadak doit sa renommée dans les annales de l’Isl…

al-Ashʿarī, Abū Mūsā

(1,586 words)

Author(s): Lecker, Michael
Abū Mūsā ʿAbdallāh b. Qays al-Ashʿarī (d. c.48/668; the dates given in the sources range from 42/662 to 53/673) was a Companion of the prophet Muḥammad and a leading statesman and general who played a major role in the Islamic conquests and served, at various periods, as governor of Basra and Kufa, the two garrison cities of Iraq. His affiliation to the Ashʿar tribe is uncertain: according to some, he belonged to a group from the Juʿfī tribe that separated from the Juʿfī following a dispute (kharajū mughāḍibīn li-qawmihim) and attached itself to the Ashʿar. His sons Abū Burda and A…
Date: 2020-09-16
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