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(75,713 words)

Date: 2017-11-08

Political Regimes: Central Asia

(5,312 words)

Author(s): Till Mostowlansky
Introduction Scholarship on women and gender in Central Asia has increased over the past two decades, but there is a relative lack of comparative work on the region’s former Soviet republics, and on the impact of regime changes on women and gender across the region. In addition, much of the existing work derives from studies that cater to donor-funded development contexts (Kamp 2009, 6), making …

Breastfeeding: Central Asia

(1,453 words)

Author(s): Krieger, Laurie
Central Asian breastfeeding trends are influenced by interacting factors, e.g. gender roles/status, body concepts, economics, politics, religion, and national medical guidelines. These non-discrete factors contribute to each other's expression to varying degrees. Traditionally, reproduction, including breastfeeding, has been central to women's roles in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan – former Soviet Central Asia – although women's roles have varied by ethnic group, rural/urban location, degree …

16. Air Law | Central Asia

(838 words)

Author(s): Tegizbekova, Zhyldyz
16.1 Aviation Law and Policy in Central AsiaThe Central Asian countries, namely Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, are landlocked and therefore rely critically on aviation for passenger travel and express cargo logistics. Despite substantial growth in the past decade, the region’s aviation market is still not realizing its full potential.With air traffic being on the rise and with new route launches, growing airlines such as “Air Astana,” and the construction of one of the newest airports in the world in Turkmenistan, there is no doubt that these are good times for the development of transportation in Central Asia. For example, Uzbekistan’s five-year plan initiated in 2017 aims at upgr…

17. Human Rights | Central Asia

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Atadjanov, Rustam | Tegizbekova, Zhyldyz
17.1 HumanityThe concept of humanity is found among principles and values which are diverse and heterogeneous in the extent to which they have been established or clarified in law. Whereas some of them have already been legally well defined (e.g., self-determination, territorial integrity or common heritage of mankind have been recognized as principles of international law), this is not so for others, such as the concept of humanity. In terms of international law, the latter constitutes an undefi…

Central Asia

(1,930 words)

Author(s): Wacker, Gudrun
According to the generally accepted political definition of the term, "Central Asia" encompasses the five states Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan, which became independent Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) republics only after the fall of the Soviet Union, though their character as national units and carriers of national sovereignty originated in Soviet times. Strictly speaking, intergovernmental relations to the PRC were therefore not established until the…

Migration: Internal Displacement: Central Asia

(1,297 words)

Author(s): Leitich, Keith A.
Introduction Throughout the twentieth century countless numbers of women in Central Asia have bee…

19. International Criminal Law | Central Asia

(3,438 words)

Author(s): Tegizbekova, Zhyldyz | Sayapin, Sergey | Atadjanov, Rustam
19.1 Anti-corruption Law and Policy in Central AsiaFor the countries of Central Asia – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan – corruption is one of the most significant problems standing in the way of development. Transparency International’s 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index ranks Kazakhstan in 124th, Kyrgyzstan in 132th, Tajikistan in 152nd, Turkmenistan in 161st and Uzbekistan in 158th position, lower-ranking countries being more corrupt. Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan signed the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) on 10…

Central Asia (general)

(484 words)

Books Articles AKINER, Shirin Between tradition and modernity: the dilemma facing contemporary Central Asian women Post-Soviet women: from the Baltic to Central Asia. normal:Ed. M.Buckley , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. pp.261-304 AKINER, Shirin Frauenemanzipation: ein zentralasiatischer Überblick Feminismus, Islam, Nation: Frauenbewegungen im Maghreb, in Zentralasien und in der Türkei. normal: (Hg.) Claudia Schöning-Kalender, Aylâ Neusel, Mechtild M.Jansen , Frankfurt a.M.: Campus, 1997. pp.95-124 ALIMOVA, Dilarom A. A historian's vision of 'Khu…

Religious Associations: Central Asia

(1,339 words)

Author(s): De Santi, Chiara
Women's religious associations and gatherings in Central Asia are closely connected with the historical, political, economic, ethnic, and social evolutions of the region. Their larger presence was noticed during the last decades of the twentieth century and they have become still more evident since the collapse of the Soviet Union, when the Central Asian republics gained their independence and Islam was recognized as an important element of ethnic-religious identity. …

Law: Customary: Central Asia

(966 words)

Author(s): Bowring, Bill
The legal heritage of Central Asia comprises a multi-layered heritage of ancient Turkic and Persian traditions, Islam (since the seventh century C.E.), and Soviet law and practice (Kamp 1998). This is especially true for the “stans” (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan), but Mongolia and Afghanistan were also heavily influenced by Soviet conceptions. Post-Soviet law has continued to reproduce Soviet norms, as well as drawing from legal reforms in the Russian Federati…

Contributors | Central Asia

(50 words)

Contributors   Sections Rustam Atadjanov   9.4; 17.1; 18.1–18.2; 19.3 Assistant Professor, KIMEP University Miras Daulenov   1.1; 9.3; 7.1; 13.1–13.2 President, Narxoz University Sergey Sayapin   9.1–9.2; 9.5; 14.1; 15.1; 19.2; 19.4…

Education: (Early through Late) Modern: Central Asia

(4,397 words)

Author(s): Keller, Shoshana
Central Asian society between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries was a mix of settled farmers, oasis town-dwellers, and pastoral nomads. Central Asian economies were based on agriculture, herding, small-scale manufacturing, and trade. Very few people, male or female, needed to know how to read, write, or do more than basic arithmetic. The high culture of the elite in the cities of Bukhara, Kokand, Samarkand, and Khiva was based on that of Persia, which meant that while most inhabitants of Central Asia spoke Turkic languages, most written poetry, religious texts, and court documents were in Persian or (less often) Arabic. Below the elite level learning was passed on orally, with an emphasis on the ability to recite from memory the appropriate prayers or poems at the appropriate times.…

Migration: Regional: Central Asia

(1,560 words)

Author(s): Droeber, Julia
The end of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first centuries witnessed what seemed to be unprecedented waves of migration into and out of the newly independent republics of Central Asia. Media reports about the politically, socially, and economically destabilizing potential of the massive movements of populations were and continue to be frequent. After decades of very limited access to Central Asian societies for Western academics, they too were attracted to what appeared to be demog…

Archives: Central Asia

(937 words)

Author(s): Morrison, Alexander
Most archives in Central Asia were established in the Soviet period on the basis of existing collections of documents from the tsarist administration and earlier Central Asian states. These are now the national archives of Kazakhstan (Almaty), Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek), Tajikistan (Dushanbe), Turkmenistan (Ashkhabad), and Uzbekistan (Tashkent). There are also important collections relating to Central Asian history in St Petersburg, Moscow, Orenburg, Omsk, and Astrakhan in the Russian Federation, and in T…
Date: 2021-07-19

Aging: Central Asia

(1,108 words)

Author(s): Kuehnast, Kathleen
In less than a century, or within four generations, Central Asian women have experienced three distinct economic and political periods: Russian imperialism (prior to 1917); Soviet collectivization (1917–91); and the post-Soviet transition. For many, the rapidity of societal and political transformation has been so great that no two consecutive generations of Central Asian women share similar political, economic, or social life experiences. For this reason, women, gender, and life cycle must be p…

Hagiography in Central Asia

(1,375 words)

Author(s): Eden, Jeff
Islamic hagiography has been written in Central Asia for nearly a millennium, and in that time the prevailing form and evident function of hagiographical texts has shifted dramatically. Elements of hagiography—the lives and deeds of saints, or “friends of God” (awliyāʾ)—can be found in multiple Muslim literary genres, including ṭabaqāt (generations), ḥikāyāt (tales), tadhkira (remembrance), dāstān (story, in Persian), mathnavī (long poem rhyming AA, BB, CC...), and risāla (treatise). Stories about Muslim saints appear in all these genres in Central Asia, define…
Date: 2021-07-19

Identity Politics: Central Asia

(987 words)

Author(s): Harris, Colette
Identity politics in Central Asia exists on different levels – international, regional, and local. In the first, East (tradition) confronts West (modernity). In the second, attempts are made to distinguish among the various national groupings of the region, while the third focuses on internal differences, at national, local, or clan level. In all three, much of the discourse takes place around gender identities, and images of women are used as counters in male political games. During the 1920s the Bolsheviks attempted to re-engineer Central Asian gender identities, esp…

Disabilities: Central Asia

(1,910 words)

Author(s): Droeber, Julia
For decades, disability of almost any kind has been a taboo topic in public discourse in Central Asia. In this regard, the region does not differ from other parts of the world, and yet there seems to be a particularly strong legacy of silence about disabilities. Reliable statistics are difficult to come by. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Central Asian republics have been following diverging paths with regard to their policies on the inclusion of disabled (or differently-abled) people. But this is not the only reason why f…

Child Marriage: Central Asia

(1,132 words)

Author(s): Clark, William
In Central Asian Islamic cultures early marriage has been an integral part of the social structure in both the present and the recent past. Child marriage was officially proscribed by the Communist regimes of Central Asia who replaced Islamic family law with secular family law. Soviet and Chinese legislation struck at the heart of many traditional Islamic practices such as early marriage, arranged marriages, and excessive costs associated with the wedding ceremony. Premodern child marriages were most often contracted between extended family members of elite families…
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