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Hannibal

(1,492 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Ḥnbl = ‘grace of Bl’; Ἀννίβας; Anníbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian general end of 5th cent. BC Successful Carthaginian commander, son of  Gescon [1], the Magonid. Having grown up in exile in Selinunt among other places, he established the Punic ‘province’ in western Sicily (‘epicracy’) through military campaigns in 410/9 and 406/5 BC. The politics of Carthaginian intervention which H. inaugurated were initially occasioned by a call for help from Segesta but the true cause lies in Syracuse's hegemonic …

Hannibal

(4,228 words)

Author(s): Muth, Laura
(Ἀννίβας/ Anníbas; Latin Hannibal) A. Historical dimension The Carthaginian H. Barca (247–183 BC) was elected to take over command of the Spanish campaign begun in 237 BC by his father, Hamilcar Barca (who had commanded the Carthaginian forces in Sicily fighting Rome during the First Punic War), in 221 BC following the death of his father and his brother-in-law Hasdrubal. His siege and conquest of the eastern Spanish city of Saguntum (219 BC) triggered the outbreak of the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) [04.594]; [09.152 f.]; [24.84–88], which most surviving sources on H.'s life…
Date: 2016-02-22

Hannibal

(3,946 words)

Author(s): Laura Muth
(Ἀννίβας/Anníbas, lat. Hannibal) A. Historische Dimension Der Karthager H. Barkas (247–183 v. Chr.) übernahm nach dem Tod seines Vaters Hamilkar Barkas (während des Ersten Punischen Krieges gegen Rom karthag. General in Sizilien) und seines Schwagers Hasdrubal 221 v. Chr. als gewählter General die Führung des 237 von seinem Vater begonnenen Spanienfeldzugs. Seine Belagerung und Eroberung der ostspan. Stadt Sagunt (219) führten zum Ausbruch des Zweiten Punischen Krieges (218–201 v. Chr.) [4 594]; [9 152 f.]; [24 84–88], den die Mehrheit der erhaltenen Quellen zu H.s …
Date: 2017-04-01

Hannibal

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (München)
( Ḥnbl = “Gnade des Bl”; Ἀννίβας). [English version] [1] Karthagischer Feldherr Ende 5. Jh. v.Chr. Erfolgreicher karthagischer Feldherr, Sohn des Magoniden Geskon [1], u.a. im Exil in Selinunt aufgewachsen, etablierte die punische “Provinz” in West-Sizilien (“Epikratie”) durch die Feldzüge 410/09 und 406/05 v.Chr., wobei das Hilfegesuch von Segesta der Anlaß, die hegemoniale Expansion von Syrakus die tiefere Ursache für die von H. inaugurierte karthagische Interventionspolitik war [1. 107-114; 2. 37, 41, 119]…

Kimball, (Hannibal) Ingalls

(153 words)

Author(s): F.J. Mosher
* 2. 4. 1874 in West Newton, Massachusetts, ✝ 16. 10. 1933 in Mount McGregor, New York, amer. Verleger und Schriftkünstler. Während seines Studiums an der Harvard Univ. gründete K. 1893 zus. mit Herbert S. Stone die Firma Stone & Kimball und begann 1894 mit der Veröff. des «Chap Book», eines lit. Magazins. 1896 kaufte K. die Anteile Stones und verlegte das Geschäft nach New York, wo es ein Jahr später in Konkurs ging. K. gründete daraufhin die Cheltenham Press, ursprünglich eine Werbeagentur, di…

Maharbal

(278 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(* Mhrbl = ‘servant of Bl’; Greek Μαάρβας/ Maárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander (?) Carthaginian commander of dubious historicity, who is supposed to have outsmarted rebellious Libyans by means of doped wine and defeated them (Frontin. Str. 2,5,12; cf. Polyaenus, Strat. 5,10,1; [1. 193f.]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander of Hannibal, end of 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian, son of a Himilkon, as Hannibal's [4] commander in his absence he led the siege of Saguntum in 219 BC (Liv. 21,12,1-3); identical…

Epicydes

(179 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἐπικύδης; Epikýdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Euphemides of Athens c. 480 BC Son of Euphemides of Athens. In 480 BC, he ran for the office of strategos but  Themistocles supposedly bribed him into withdrawing his candidacy (Plut. Themist. 6; Mor. 185A). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Confidant of Hannibal Brother of Hippocrates, grandson of Arcesilaus, a Syracusian exile in Carthage. E. grew up in Carthage as the son of a Carthaginian woman (Pol. 7,2; Liv. 24,6; Iust. 22,8). He was a confidant of Hannibal and, in 214 B…

Epikydes

(153 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München)
(Ἐπικύδης). [English version] [1] Sohn des Euphemides aus Athen, um 480 v. Chr. Sohn des Euphemides aus Athen, kandidierte 480 v.Chr. um das Strategenamt. Themistokles soll ihn jedoch durch Bestechung dazu veranlaßt haben, seine Bewerbung zurückzuziehen (Plut. Themist. 6; mor. 185A). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) [English version] [2] enger Vertrauter des Hannibal Bruder des Hippokrates, Enkel des Arkesilaos, eines syrakusanischen Verbannten in Karthago, dort als Sohn einer Karthagerin aufgewachsen (Pol. 7,2; Liv. 24,6; Iust. 22,8); enger Vertra…

Dasius

(167 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München)
Messapischer Name in lat. Form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Angesehene Namensträger in Apulien (bes. aus Arpi und Salapia), waren noch im zweiten Punischen Krieg romfeindlich. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [English version] [1] Kommandant von Clastidium gegen Hannibal D. aus Brundisium, 218 v.Chr. Kommandant der bundesgenössischen Besatzung von Clastidium mit großem röm. Vorratslager, das er an Hannibal nach dem Sieg am Ticinus gegen 400 Goldstücke verriet (Pol. 3,69; Liv. 21,48). Günther, Linda-Marie (München) [English version] [2] Führer der prokarthagischen Pa…

Dasius

(188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Messapic name in Lat. form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Respected bearers of that name in Apulia (in particular from Arpi and Sala) were still anti-Roman during the Second Punic War. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] Commander of Clastidium against Hannibal D. from Brundisium, in 218 BC commander of the allied occupation forces of  Clastidium with large Roman stores which he betrayed to Hannibal after the victory at the Ticinus for 400 pieces of gold (Pol. 3,69; Liv. 21,48). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Leader of the pro-Carthaginian p…

Chaereas

(228 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Χαιρέας; Chairéas). [German version] [1] Strategos at Cyzicus, 410 BC Son of Archestratus (Lycomide?) of Athens. In 411/10 BC co- strategos in Samos, sent to Athens on the  Paralus, but was able to return (Thuc. 8,74,1-3; 86,3). In 410 strategos at Cyzicus (Diod. Sic. 13,49,6; 50,7; 51,3). PA 15093. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Davies, 9238 Fraser/Matthews, GPN 2, 1994, 469, no. 3 A. W. Gomme et al., Historical Commentary on Thucydides, 5, 1981, 266-268. [German version] [2] Nauarch of Ptolemy IX, 1st cent. BC Nauarch of Ptolemy IX; perhaps strategos of Cyprus; 88 BC…

Bostar

(180 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Bdstart; Βώσταρ; Bṓstar i.a.). [German version] [1] Cartaginian strategos in 1st Punic War Carthaginian strategos in the 1st Punic War; he shared command with  Hasdrubal and Hamilcar in 256 BC against M.  Atilius Regulus, fell prisoner to the Romans at the battle of Adis and died in Rome (Pol. 1,30; Diod. Sic. 24,12) [1.20]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carhaginian sub-commander in 2nd Punic War Carthaginian sub-commander in Spain in the 2nd Punic War; in 217 he fell back from the Romans to Saguntum, where he let himself be duped into r…

Hamilcar

(877 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Carthaginian name Hmlk = ‘grace is to mlk’; Gk. Ἁμίλκας/ Hamílkas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander about 500-480 BC Son of Hanno and a Syracusan woman (Hdt. 7,165), grandson of  Mago [1. 36,183f.], father of  Geskon [1]; Carthaginian commander in c. 500-480 BC, whose role in his brother Hasdrubal's campaign against Sardinia remains unclear (Iust. 19,1,6f.) [1. 37]. It is seriously disputed whether he was king, or rather suffete [2. 459-461; 3. 70f., 90-97]. In 480, H. undertook a military expedition against  Himera, whi…

Decimius

(225 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
Roman family name, whose older and inscriptional form is Decumus (Schulze, 159), derived from  Decimus. Historic bearers of the name are documented since the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] D., C. Legate in Egypt 168 BC Legate in Crete in 171 BC, praetor peregrinus in 169, legate in Egypt in 168. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] D., Num. Leader of allies in the war against Hannibal 217 BC from Bovianum in Samnium; in 217, he brought timely help with a contingent of allies to the magister equitum Q. Minucius who was under heavy pressure from Hannibal …

Hamilkar

(758 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (München)
(Karthagischer Name Hmlk = “Gnade ist mlk”, Ἁμίλκας). [English version] [1] Karthagischer Feldherr ca. 500-480 v.Chr. Sohn des Hanno und einer Syrakusanerin (Hdt. 7,165), Enkel des Mago [1. 36,183f.], Vater des Geskon [1]; karthagischer Feldherr ca. 500-480 v.Chr., dessen Rolle beim Sardinienfeldzug seines Bruders Hasdrubal unklar ist (Iust. 19,1,6f.) [1. 37]. Heftig umstritten ist H.s Königs- bzw. Sufetenamt [2. 459-461; 3. 70f., 90-97]. Im J. 480 unternahm H. einen Kriegszug gegen das von Theron eroberte und …

Decimius

(195 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
Römischer Familienname, ältere Form und inschr. Decumus (Schulze, 159), abgeleitet von Decimus. Histor. Namensträger sind seit der 2. H. des 2. Jh.v.Chr. bezeugt. [English version] [1] D., C. Gesandter nach Ägypten 168 v.Chr. 171 v.Chr. Gesandter nach Kreta, 169 praetor peregrinus, 168 Gesandter nach Ägypten. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] D., Num. Bundesgenossenführer im Krieg gegen Hannibal 217 v.Chr. aus Bovianum in Samnium, brachte 217 bei Gereonium mit einem Kontingent der Bundesgenossen dem von Hannibal schwer bedrängten magister equitum Q. Minuci…

Geskon

(295 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Carthaginian name (*Grskn = ‘protégé of Skn’; Γέσκων, Γίσκων, Γίσγω; Géskōn, Gískōn, Gísgō; Lat. Gisgo, Gisco). [German version] [1] Father of Hannibal [1], exiled after 480 BC Son of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1]; after 480 BC he lived as an exile in Selinus, as did probably also his son Hannibal [1] for a while (Diod. Sic. 13,43,5) [1. 30f.; 2. 40]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander 343-339 BC Carthaginian commander in 343-339 BC in the war against  Timoleon, for which he had been recalled from exile (Diod. Sic. 16,81,3; Poly…

Himilco

(674 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(*[ʾ]hmlkt = ‘brother of Mlkt’, Ἰμίλκων; Imílkōn). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander, relative of Hannibal, strategos Carthaginian commander, son of a Hanno, great-grandson of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1] and a relation of  Hannibal [1], whom he accompanied to Sicily in 407 BC as (fleet?) strategos and after whose death H. took over the supreme command (Diod. Sic. 13,80; Iust. 19,2,7). H. besieged, conquered and destroyed  Acragas in 406/405, then  Gela and  Camarina, but soon after, in 405, failed in his siege of  Syracuse because…

Ninnius

(255 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Pacuvius and Sthenius N. Celer from a distinguished Campanian family seem to have offered Hannibal accomodation in Capua in 216 BC Pacuvius and Sthenius N. Celer belonged to a distinguished Campanian family. They seem to have offered Hannibal sumptuous accommodation in Capua in 216 BC (Liv. 23,8). Punic Wars Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im 2. Punischen Krieg, 1975, 30-31. [German version] [2] N. Crassus Republican writer, translator of the Iliad in Latin Republican writer, who translated the ‘Iliad into Latin…

Polyclitus

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος/ Polýkleitos). [German version] [1] Greek bronze sculptor from Sicyon, 5th or 4th cent. BC the Greek bronze sculptor Polyclitus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] I. General Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of Ageladas in Argos. Biographical detail on P. is scanty. His sons were regarded as less successful. P. [2] may, judging by his name, have been a nephew, and Naucydes thus P.'s brother. Six pupils, with mostly unrevealing names, are recorded. However, various family and artistic lineages have b…
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