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Oldenbarnevelt, Johan van

(326 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Sep 25, 1547, Amersfoort – May 13, 1619, The Hague), Netherlands politician. In 1585 he supported the appointment of Maurits of Orange as governor of Holland and Zeeland. From 1586 he was a council official of the province of Holland. From 1587, he worked with Maurits for the consolidation of the republic of the United Netherlands, and in 1609 negotiated the 12-year truce with Spain. Oldenbarnevelt took the side of the Arminians and the Remonstration of 1610, and in foreign polic…

Frederick the Great

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1712, Berlin – Aug 17, 1786, Sanssouci near Potsdam), king in (from 1772: of) Prussia. Following a strict religious upbringing, the son of Frederick William I soon turned to a religion of reason, which led to clashes with his father in 1726. The conflict escalated when the crown prince tried to escape in 1730, whereupon he was held under arrest in Küstrin. The price of the reconciliation with his father was Frederick's marriage to Elisabeth Christine v. Braunschweig-Bever…


(429 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm | Schneider, Hans
[German Version] 1. Johannes (1515, Grave, Brabant – Feb 24, 1588, Tecklenburg), physician, occultist, and demonologist. Weyer was a disciple of H.C. Agrippa of Nettesheim. ¶ After studying in Paris, he served as personal physician to Duke William the Rich of Jülich-Kleve-Burg from 1550 to 1578. He attacked the Hexenhammer (first publ. 1487) of the Dominicans Jakob Sprenger and Heinrich Institoris and sought – against strong resistance (including from J. Bodin) – to unmask belief in witches (II) as a delusion, but he was no more successful tha…

Riegger, Paul Joseph von

(221 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1705, Freiburg im Breisgau – Dec 2, 1775, Vienna), canonist. After studying in Leiden and elsewhere, and gaining his Dr.iur.utr. in Freiburg, Riegger served from 1733 to 1749 as professor of natural and imperial law in Innsbruck, was in 1749 at the Savoy Ritterakademie in Vienna, and from 1753 to 1773 professor of canon law at Vienna University. Riegger was ennobled in 1764. Through theoretical separation of church and state, and demarcation of their areas of responsibili…

Marnix, Philipp

(465 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Filips), Heer van Sint-Aldegonde (1540, Brussels – Dec 15, 1598, Leiden), Flemish politician and academic, of a Savoyard family, who came to the Netherlands with the regent Margaret of Austria; he combined political Calvinism, theological polemic, and patriotic poetry. Marnix studied at Leuven, Paris, Dôle, Padua, and finally Geneva, whence he returned to the Netherlands in 1561 as a Calvinist. After the iconoclastic riots of 1566, in exile in eastern Friesland he wrote an apologia for the uprising (1567) and several polemical works, including De Bijenkorf der H…

Spifame, Jacques

(187 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1502, Paris – Mar 23, 1566, Genega), seigneur de Passy. After studying law, he was appointed counselor of state and parliamentary counselor in Paris; he was appointed bishop of Nevers in 1548. In 1559 he resigned, fled to Geneva, and became a Protestant, having been suspected of Protestant sympathies for some time. In the background was an adulterous relationship in the distant past and a desire to legitimate a love affair and the children it produced. Together with T. Beza, Spif…

Werkmeister, Leonhard (von)

(453 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (ennobled in 1808; monastic name Benedikt Maria; Oct 22, 1745, Füssen – Jul 16, 1823, Stuttgart). In 1764/1765 Werkmeister entered the Benedictine abbey of Neresheim; he studied in Benediktbeuern and was ordained to the priesthood in 1769. In 1770 he became novice master. From 1772 to 1774 and 1778 to 1780, he taught philosophy in Freising; in 1780 he became head of studies in Neresheim. In 1784 he was appointed court chaplain by the Catholic duke Karl Eugen of Württemberg. In 179…

Isenbiehl, Johann Lorenz

(187 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Dec 20, 1744, Heiligenstadt, Eichsfeld – Dec 26, 1818, Oestrich, Rheingau), was a Catholic theologian, from 1773 professor of exegesis in Mainz. He sparked off the Isenbiehl Controversy in 1774 with theses in which he disputed the messianic character of Isa 7:14 in relation to Matt 1:22 (culminating in Neuer Versuch über die Weissagung des Emmanuel [1777]). During the controversy, theological pamphlets for and against Isenbiehl were exchanged. Suspended in 1774 and once again in 1777, then imprisoned in a monastery, with support from…


(1,134 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] The “shimmering and ambiguous term Josephinism” (Klueting, Josephinismus, 1) originated in the early 19th century and refers to Joseph II; the phenomenon existed long before 1780. In scholarship, Josephinism initially referred only to the state's policy toward the church (Winter, Maaß). Following Valjavec, Josephinism is now often understood as a shorthand term for all the reforms in the Austrian monarchy which were instituted in the 1740s, reached their apex after 1780, and which can be…


(627 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] In the broader sense (1), a simultaneum is the coexistence of two or more denominations in one territory, in parity or under constraint for one party. In a narrower sense (2), it involves the shared use of church facilities, especially church buildings, by members of two or more denominations. An example of (1) is the coexistence of Reformed, Lutherans, and Catholics in the Electoral Palatinate and the restored occupied territories under the Rijswijk Clause (1697). Prior to 1679/1…

Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques

(86 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (May 10, 1727, Paris – Mar 20, 1781, Paris), French economic theorist influenced by physiocracy. Appointed comptroller-general of finance in 1774, he sought to avert French national bankruptcy through economies and tax reforms. His reform edicts turned the privileged classes against him and he was dismissed on May 10, 1776. Harm Klueting Bibliography E. Brian, La mesure de l’etat, 1994 M. Hill, Statesman of Enlightenment, 1999 J.-P. Poirier, Turgot. Laissez-faire et progrès social, 1999 B. Plé, BBKL XVIII, 2001, 1402–1436.

Schwendi, Lazarus von

(130 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1522, Mittelbiberach – May 28, 1584, Kirchhofen im Breisgau), imperial diplomat and military commander. After studying at Basel and Straßburg (Strasbourg), he led forces in the Schmalkaldic War, wars with France, and (as commander-in-chief after 1564) in Hungary. In memoranda (esp. 1570 and 1574), he urged improvements in the Empire’s district organization and warfare, with the goal of greater centralization. At the Imperial Diets between 1566 and 1576, he urged public and religious peace, along with religious toleration. Harm Klueting Bibliography Works incl…

Retz, Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de

(203 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (baptized Sep 20, 1613, Montmirail, Département Marne – Aug 24, 1679, Paris). After studying theology, he was appointed coadjutor of Paris 1644; in 1652 he was made a cardinal, in 1654 archbishop of Paris, and in 1662 abbot of St. Denis. A political opponent of J. Mazarin and Louis XIV, he organized the uprising of the Fronde (1648–1653). He was arrested in 1652 but was appointed archbishop while still in prison. He was forced to resign his office (not recognized by Pope Innocent …

Mazarin (Mazzarini), Jules

(478 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Giulio Raimondi; Jul 14, 1602, Pescina, Abruzzi – Mar 9, 1661, Vincennes, near Paris), cardinal and French prime minister. He studied at the Jesuit College in Rome (Jesuits), received the Dr.iur.utr., and was captain of a papal regiment. In 1631, in the Mantuan War of Succession, he negotiated the treaties of Cherasco, which brought France Pignerolo as a gateway into northern Italy and brought Mazarin the protection of Richelieu. From 1634 to 1636, Mazarin was nuncio in Paris and…

Lipsius, Justus

(214 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Joest Lips; Oct 18, 1547, Overijse, near Brussels – Mar 23, 1606, Louvain), late Humanist and Latin philologist. Lipsius was professor at Jena from 1572 to 1574, moved to Louvain in 1576, to Leiden in 1578, and back to Louvain in 1592. He changed his religious allegiance frequently. His rediscovery of the Stoics and the spread of neo-Stoicism, e.g. in Brandenburg-Prussia, were of immense importance. Harm Klueting Bibliography Works include: De Constantia, 1584 (Lat.-Ger., 1998) On Lipsius: G. Oestreich, Geist und Gestalt des frühmodernen Staates, 1969 G. Abel, Stoiz…


(931 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] I. Research Paradigm – II. Recent Developments – III. 19th Century I. Research Paradigm Confessionalization is the forming of state, society, and culture as a result of the formation of a denomination in the sense of the construction of a dogmatic system of doctrine. Confessionalization is seen in association with the early-modern state and social discipline, the backgrounds of which are sought in church discipline. The starting point was the Reformation (Schilling, Konfessionskonflikt; Reformierte Konfessionalisierung). After criticism of the term …

Rijswijk Clause

(360 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] name given to the stipulation in art. 4 of the Treaty of Rijswijk (Rijswick, near The Hague, the Netherlands), by which Louis XIV’s war with the Great Alliance ended on Sep 29/Oct 30, 1697, having begun in 1688. The Treaty forced Louis XIV to restore all the “reunion” territories obtained since 1679, and to give back the Palatinate, militarily occupied since 1688 (but not Strasbourg, annexed in 1681). Diverging from the “norm year” (Annus normalis; 1624) otherwise applied in the Peace of Westphalia, art. 4 guaranteed the Catholic confessional status ¶ of the restored re…


(706 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Napolione Buonaparte; Aug 15, 1769, Ajaccio, Corsica – May 5, 1821, St. Helena), emperor of the French. Lieutenant of the French artillery since 1785, Napoleon joined the “Montangards” around M. Robespierre in 1793; after the recapture of Toulon in December of 1793, he was promoted to general. After 9 Thermidor (Jul 27, 1794), he was temporarily dismissed from the army. After the defeat of the royalist uprising in Paris (Oct 5, 1795), he was made commander in chief of the Army of…

L'Hospital, Michel de

(384 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (L'Hôpital; 1507, Aigueperse, Puy-de-Dôme – Mar 13, 1573, Bellébat near Paris) was a French statesman who had studied in Toulouse and Padua, and a jurist educated in theology and the humanities. From 1537, he was a member of the “Parlement” in Paris, and in 1547 he participated in the Council of Trent. After holding high state offices, in 1560 he became chancellor to the queen mother Catharine de Medici (1519–1589), who was regent during the minority of Charles IX (reigned from 15…

Joseph II

(599 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] Holy Roman Emperor, king of Bohemia, king of Hungary, archduke of Austria (Mar 13, 1741, Vienna – Feb 22, 1790, Vienna), oldest son of Maria ¶ Theresia (1717–1780), the last of the Habsburgs, and her spouse, Franz Stephan of Lorraine (1708–1765), elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1745 as Franz I. Joseph was elected king of the Holy Roman Empire in 1764 and became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in 1765. In the Austrian monarchy (Austria), he became co-regent with his mother in 1765. In 17…

Richelieu, Jean Armand du Plessis, Duke of

(700 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Sep 9, 1585, Paris – Dec 4, 1642, Paris), French statesman and cardinal (1622). Richelieu gained the degree of Dr.theol. at the Sorbonne in 1607; in 1608, with papal dispensation because he was under the canonical age, he became bishop of Luçon, and in that capacity took part in the assembly of the States-General of 1614. In its final session he made a speech supporting the policies of the regent Marie de Medici, who in 1616 appointed him a minister in the council of state. After…

Montgelas, Maximilian Joseph

(158 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (from 1809, Count; Sep 10, 1759, Munich – Jun 14, 1838, Munich), son of a Bavarian general of Savoyard descent. Montgelas wrote in 1789 the Mémoire instructif sur les droits des ducs de Bavière en matière ecclésiastique, and in 1796 the Ansbach Memorandum with a program of reform for Bavaria, whose policies he directed as foreign minister from 1799 to 1817 (at times also as minister of finance and of the interior). Grounded in secularization and mediatization, Montgelas's policies (reforms of administration, society, econ…

Niebuhr, Barthold Georg

(253 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Aug 27, 1776, Copenhagen – Jan 2, 1831, Bonn), historian. He was appointed director of the state bank of Denmark in 1804 and of the “Preußische Seehandlung” (Prussian Maritime Trading Company) in 1806. In 1810 he lectured on Roman history in Berlin. From 1816 to 1823, he served as Prussian ambassador to the Holy See (the reorganization of Catholic dioceses in Prussia in 1821). His significance rests on his Römische Geschichte (ET: Roman History, 1827), which gives an account up to 241 bce, and stands out for its rigorously critical use of sources (esp. its cri…

Keckermann, Bartholomäus

(327 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1571/1573, Danzig – Aug [Jul?] 25,1608, Danzig), Reformed philosopher and polymath. He studied at the Danzig Gymnasium, in Wittenberg, Leipzig, and Heidelberg and graduated as Mag.phil. in 1595 and Lic. theol. in 1600, and was professor of Hebrew in Heidelberg from 1600 onward. He returned to Danzig in 1601 and became deputy principal at the Gymnasium. As a philosopher, Keckermann was the most prominent representative of an Aristotelian, anti-Ramist (P. Ramus) scholastic philosop…

Hoen, Cornelisz Hendricxz

(335 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (also Hoon, Honius, Honnius; died 1524 in The Hague) attended the school of the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life in Utrecht and became an attorney at law in The Hague. In 1523, he was imprisoned after a religious disputation. Hoen had acquired Wessel Gansfort's De sacramento eucharistiae from the estate of the deceased Jacobus Hoeck, the reading of which led him to interpret the est in hoc est corpus meum (1Cor 11:24) in the sense of significat. The letter in which he discloses this interpretation to J. (Hinne) Rode, which some believe to have origin…

Mutschelle, Sebastian

(199 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jan 18, 1749, Allershausen near Freising – Nov 28, 1800, Munich), Catholic theologian and representative of the Catholic Enlightenment ¶ (II, 4.f). In 1765 he joined the Jesuit order, and after its abolition (1773) was from 1775 to 1788 a canon of St. Veit's Church in Freising, from 1793 to 1800 priest in Baumkirchen near Munich. In 1799 he became professor of moral and pastoral theology in Munich. Mutschelle contributed to the reform of elementary schools and teacher training, and especially to the reception of I. Kant in Catholic Germany. Harm Klueting Bibliography Wor…


(294 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Enlightened). The secret society of the Illuminati was founded in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, banned in 1785, and dissolved in 1787. It was especially widespread in Bavaria, but also in the rest of Germany and in Austria. The Illuminati were a radical Enlightenment order, which was reflected in the self-designation “Illuminatos” (see also Alumbrados; Enlightenment [Spiritual]: III). They differed from the Freemasons in their atheist orientation (reading P.H.D. Baron v. Holbach and He…

Church and State

(8,630 words)

Author(s): Thümmel, Hans Georg | Kandler, Karl-Hermann | Klueting, Harm | Oelke, Harry | Valeri, Mark | Et al.
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Law – III. Practical Theology – IV. Systematic Theology I. Church History 1. Early Church The Roman state (Roman Empire) tolerated philosophical atheism and a multitude of cults that flooded in from its conquered territories, but it refused to tolerate rejection of the cult of the official gods ( di publici populi Romani), on which the security of the state was believed to depend. Since Christians refused to participate in this cult, they inevitably came into conflict with the Roman state. Bot…
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