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Erotianus

(328 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Greek grammarian, middle or end of the 1st cent. AD, author of a glossary of Hippocratic words, which he dedicated to  Andromachus [4 or 5], a doctor at the imperial court in Rome [2; 3]. The alphabetic structure of the glossary, in its surviving form, does not go back to E. since, in his preface (9), he expressly emphasizes that he had explained the words in the sequence of their appearance in c. 37 Hippocratic texts which in turn could be classified into 1) semiotic, 2) physiological-aetiological, 3) therapeutic texts, 4) miscellaneous, 5) texts on…

Acesias

(50 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀκεσίας; Akesías). Greek doctor of 3rd cent. BC (?). According to an intentionally ambiguous proverb, he only treated those who suffered the worst (suffering or doctor) (Aristoph. Byz., Zenob. 1,52). It is possible that he also wrote about culinary art (Ath. 12, 516c). Nutton, Vivian (London)

Praxagoras

(541 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Πραξαγόρας; Praxagóras) of Cos. Doctor, at the end of the 4th cent. BC, teacher of Herophilus [1], Phylotimus, Pleistonicus and Xenophon. His family claimed its descent from Asclepius; his grandfather who shared the same name and his father, Nicarchus, were likewise doctors. His family continued to be very prominent on Cos for generations [1]. A poem composed by Crinagoras still survives on a statue in his honour (Anth. Plan. 273). Amongst the works of this doctor are a treatise on therapy in at least 4 books, a work about diseases in at least 3 bo…

Dietetics

(386 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Classical ideas of dietetics, based on the Hippocratic and Galenic notions of a balance between the four humours, continued to play an important role in medicine  into the 20th cent. (Humoral Theory). In Arabic medicine, all substances taken into the body had properties that could affect its health, for good or ill, and hence it was the doctor's duty to prescribe diets for health, as well as for disease, and equally that of his patient  to understand the rules for a healthy lifes…

Ophthalmology

(1,093 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] A. Egypt The eye-doctors of Egypt were already famous when in about 540 BC the Persian king Cyrus [1] asked the Pharaoh Amasis for one to cure him (Hdt. 3,1; cf. 2,84). Diseases of the eyes were quite common in Egypt. Three of the seven early medical papyri are devoted to such diseases. P. Ebers alone contains more than 100 recipes for blindness. Some of these prescriptions involve Dreckapotheke, while others, for example, use liver - rich in vitamin A and a valuable remedy for xerophthalmia. Eye surgery seem to have been rarely performed and Egy…

Medicine, Historiography of

(2,043 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
Nutton, Vivian (London) [German version] A. Arabic Medical Historiography (CT) The historiography of ancient medicine goes back at least to Late Antiquity, when a 'History of the Physicians' is said to have been written by John Philoponus (6th cent.). Material from this work was drawn upon by Ishaq ibn Hunayn (d. 910/911), for his own 'History' ( Ta'rikh al-atibba), which is largely concerned with chronology [11]. Ishaq's example was followed by a variety of writers in Arabic, some, like the bookseller Ibn an-Nadim (fl. 987), producing largely lists of…

Medical ethics

(1,348 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] A. Introduction Medical ethics can be defined as the attitude of those schooled in the art of healing towards those whom they want to heal. How this appears in detail, depends on the healer's social group and standing and also the society in which he or she works. Furthermore, healers and those seeking healing may well have completely divergent views on medical ethics. It is possible to regulate for any desired attitude in the sense of the earlier definition by laws or professional …

Numisianus

(198 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Νουμισιανός; Noumisianós), anatomist and teacher of medicine in the 2nd cent. AD. A pupil of Quintus, he wrote many works on anatomy in Greek, but these were hoarded by his son Heracleianus and were eventully destroyed by fire (Galen, Administrationes anatomicae 14,1). Although Galen praises his promotion of anatomy, he attributes no discovery to him. Like other Alexandrians, N. commented upon Hippocrates (Galen, In Hippocratis Epidemiarum librum II, commentum 4: CMG V 10,1, 345-3…

Transmission of disease

(307 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Latin contagio, ‘infection’, refers to the transmission of disease (TD) from person to person, directly or through an intermediary. TD is associated with the idea of pollution: Judaism, for instance, holds that people suffering from certain diseases (such as leprosy) or menstruating women must be avoided (Purification). The stated reasons were either hygienic or religious. Similar precepts are known from ancient Babylon and Greece as well. The observation that those in close contac…

Aelius Promotus

(91 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] A., of Alexandria, worked during the first half of the second cent. as doctor and writer. He wrote about medicines and sympathetic remedies [1; 2]. The manuscripts also count among the writings of A. a treatise about toxicology [3], the core of which originated in A.'s time and which was apparently one of the main sources for  Aetius [3] of Amida, even if it shows signs of revisions in the meantime. Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography 1 E. Rohde, KS vol.1, 1901, 380-410 2 M. Wellmann, in: SBAW 1908, 772-777 3 S. Ihm, 1995.

Erasistratus

(1,039 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ερασίστρατος; Erasístratos) [German version] A. Life Physician, born in the 4th-3rd cent. BC at Iulis on Ceos; the son of Cleombrotus, physician to Seleucus I, and Cretoxene; brother and nephew to other physicians (fr. 1-8 Garofalo). Information on his education is contradictory, but, if we ignore Eusebius when he tells us that E. attained the zenith of his career in 258 BC, a link with Theophrastus and the Peripatos appears possible [7]. The professional practice of his father and E.'s own associati…

Ionicus

(90 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] of Sardis. Teacher and physician, who worked around AD 390. The son of a physician and a pupil of Zeno of Cyprus, he was well respected, particularly regarding his services to practical therapy, pharmacology, the art of bandaging, and surgery. In addition, he was a philosopher with particular gifts in medical prognostication as well as in fortunetelling (Eunapius, Vitae Philosophorum 499). Furthermore, he is reported to have distinguished himself as a well-known orator and poet, even though none of his works have survived. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Epilepsy

(357 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] From 1050 BC onwards we find careful descriptions of epilepsy and its various manifestations in Babylonian texts [1]. There, epilepsy is linked to gods, spirits, or demons. The belief in a religious cause of epilepsy and the corresponding treatment of it through religious, magical, and folk-medicinal methods can be traced throughout all of antiquity and across cultural borders. In c. 400 BC, the Hippocratic author of De morbo sacro propagated a purely somatic interpretation of epilepsy , wherein he suspected that changes in the balance of bodily fluids we…

Venereal diseases

(398 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] In the absence of unambiguous diagnostic evidence it is difficult to reconstruct the ancient history of VD. Less harmful infections such as herpes genitalis (Hippocr. De mulierum affectibus 1,90 = 8,214-8 L.) and chlamydia [2. 220] are well attested, the two major VD of modern times, gonorrhoea and syphilis, can be detected in surviving material only with difficulty. Gonorrhoea, a Greek word coinage presumably from the Hellenistic period, describes any form of excessive production of fluid in a man. It…

Artorius, M.

(136 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Doctor, and follower of Asclepiades of Bithynia (Caelius Aurelianus Morb. acut. 3,113), was in Philippi with Octavian where a dream saved the life of the future emperor (Plut. Antonius 22; Brutus 47; Val. Max. 1,7,2; Vell. Pat. 2,70,1). He was honoured by the Athenians (IG II/III2 4116), probably on the occasion of a journey to Delos (IDélos 4116), and died around 27 BC in a shipwreck (Hieron. Chron. Olymp. 127). A. believed that rabies first attacked the brain and that it spread to the stomach and caused hiccups, unquenchab…

Hicesius

(109 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Greek physician, head of an Erasistratean school in Smyrna, early 1st cent. BC (Str. 12,8,20); he wrote on  dietetics (Plin. HN 14,130; 20,35; 27,31), embryology (Tert. De anima 25) and toothache (Plin. HN 12,40). He was the inventor of a famous black plaster that ‘helped with all types of wounds’ (Gal. 13,787). Galen, who recorded four different recipes for this medication (13,780; 787; 810; 812) and cites the four authors ( Andromachus [5] the Younger,  Heras,  Heraclides [27] a…

Geneva Declaration

(155 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] One of the first official acts of the World Medical Association, founded in 1947, was drafting the Geneva Declaration (GD), a contemporary reformulation of the Hippocratic Oath; further improvements were made in 1968. The so-called abortion paragraph and the ban on surgery made way for more modern general provisions to respect human life from the moment of conception and always to use medical knowledge in harmony with the laws of humanity. It retained mention of a doctor's obliga…

Fever

(438 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (πυρετός/ pyretós, Lat. febris) strictly refers to a symptom only, i.e. a raise in body temperature, but all ancient medical authors frequently use this term to refer to a specific illness or class of illness. In modern diagnostic usage, the term covers a variety of conditions; thus the identification of any ancient ‘fever’ without any further sub-classification or other description of symptoms is bound to fail. Such aids to identification could consist of observations regarding the periodicity of fever attacks, as in the febris tertiana or febris quartana, when epi…

Humoral Theory

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] The doctrine that the human body was made up of four humours, blood, phlegm, bile and black bile, and that health consisted in their being in balance, was accepted as the creation of Hippocrates well before the 2nd cent. AD. Galen's authority, buttressed by his logical and rhetorical skills, ensured that it became for centuries the dominant theory in Western medicine and in its oriental siblings. It was expounded in short (often pseudonymous) tracts like the ps.-Galenic Perì chymôn [16] or the Epistula Yppocratis de quattuor humoribus [1] , as well as in large com…

Arabic medicine

(1,884 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
Nutton, Vivian (London) [German version] A. Origins (CT) By AD 500, Greek medicine had become largely Galenic Galenism. Alternative medical theories no longer flourished, and even pragmatists like Alexander of Tralles did not reject Galenic ideas entirely. In Alexandria, and elsewhere in the Byzantine world that followed Alexandrian traditions, e.g. Ravenna, there was a teaching syllabus of Galen, the so-called 16 books - Summaria Alexandrinorum, and of Hippocrates that was commented upon by lecturers who expected of their audience also a grasp of Aristoteli…

Chrysermus of Alexandria

(135 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (IDélos 1525). C. lived in about 150-120 BC; administrative official, ‘relative of king Ptolemy’, exegete (i.e. head of the civil service in Alexandria), director of the museum and ἐπὶ τῶν ἰατρῶν, a title that is often understood to mean the person responsible for all Egyptian doctors, which in turn led to the conclusion that there was a state organization of doctors. Kudlien is of the opinion that the title refers to the person responsible for the person in charge of the ‘tax on …

Heracleianus

(130 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Physician and anatomist from Alexandria, active c. AD 152, the son of the anatomist and teacher  Numisianus. He compiled an extract of his father's works (Gal. De musculorum dissectione 18 B, 926, 935 K.), demonstrating his own considerable knowledge (Gal. Admin. anat. 16,1). He had a conversation with  Galen, when the latter arrived in Alexandria in c. AD 151, and Galen initially followed his anatomical lectures with benevolence (CMG V,9,1, p. 70). However, when Galen later requested to see the works by H.'s late father, their relatio…

Empiricists

(726 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] A. History The Empiricists are a Greek school of physicians founded in about 250 BC by Philinus of Cos, a pupil of  Herophilus (Ps.-Galen Introductio; Gal. 14,683). According to Celsus (De med. pr. 10) it was founded somewhat later by Serapion of Alexandria. According to some doxographers the founder was Acron of Acragas (about 430 BC; fr. 5-7 Deichgräber). It is mentioned in the medical doxographies as one of the leading movements in Greek medicine even in the time of Isidorus of S…

Definitiones medicae

(237 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] The use of definitiones (‘discussions’) was extensive in medical teaching in the Greek as well as the Roman world (Gal. 1,306 K.; 19,346-7 K.). The most substantial surviving work of this genre is the Definitiones medicae ascribed to Galen (19,346-462 K.), the authenticity of which was doubted even in late antiquity (schol. in Orib. Syn, CMG 6,2,1, 250,29). Wellmann [1. 66] was of the opinion that their author lived towards the end of the 1st cent. AD, and was a member of the Pneumatic school. Although the work con…

Uliadae

(148 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Οὐλιάδαι; Ouliádai). Family connected with medicine and healing cults in Velia [1] in southern Italy. The name derives from lios (Οὔλιος;  Str. 14,1,6-8), one of the numerous epithets of Apollo (B. 4), and refers to his power both to harm and to heal (cf. Asclepius/Asclepiadae). The first verifiable member of this family was Parmenides. Statues and inscriptions in Velia, which were created primarily c. AD 20, represent members of the family, bearing the names Ulis or Uliades, as physicians and as φώλαρχοι/ phṓlarchoi; this probably suggests a cultic communit…

Uterus

(339 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] The two Greek terms μήτρα/ mḗtra and ὑστέρα/ hystéra are both of disputed etymology (Soran. Gynaecia 1,6) and are often used in the plural (the belief in its many chambers derives from animal anatomy). Hippocratic authors ( Corpus Hippocraticum ) shared the idea of the uterus as a jar moving up and down a tube in the body ( Vulva ) and closing in on itself during pregnancy. They were of the view that the uterus can, like a living creature, be attracted or repelled by pleasant or unpleasant smells, and that it held no fix…

Aeficianus

(88 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Greek doctor and philosopher, teacher of  Galen, lived about AD 150 in Asia Minor (Gal. 19,58, CMG V 10,2,2, 287). A long-standing student of  Quintus (Gal. 18A, 575) and follower of  Hippocrates, he interpreted at least some of their teachings in a Stoic sense, e.g., from the field of psychology, in which he followed the Stoic Simias (Gal. 19,58; 18b, 654]. The Hippocratic commentary, which is ascribed to him in the Galen edition by Kühn at Gal. 16,484, is a Renaissance forgery. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Anonymus Parisinus

(350 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Paris, BN, suppl. gr. 636, contains excerpts from a doxological work about acute and chronic diseases. C. Daremberg first discovered its significance for the history of medicine in his 1851 edition of Oribasius, p. XL, and collated at least two other MSS, without ever producing an edition. Following a hint by G. Costomiris, R. Fuchs took over the editio princeps in 1894 on the basis of two Paris MSS [1] but caused confusion by separating the doxographic part from the therapeutic part. Fuchs did not edit the section on acute diseases unt…

Pulse

(548 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (σφυγμός/ sphygmós, Latin pulsus). Although a pounding pulse was long recognized as an indication of illness, it seems to have been Aristotle [6] (Hist. an. 521a; De respiratione 479b) who was the first to connect the phenomenon with the heart [1]. His assertion that the pulse was a normal, constant presence in all blood vessels was disproved by Praxagoras, who was able to show that only arteries had a pulse. His view that arteries contained only pneûma and functioned independent of the heart was in turn questioned by his pupil Herophil…

Callianax

(110 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Καλλιάναξ; Kalliánax). Doctor, adherent of  Herophilus [1] and member of his ‘house’, which possibly refers to the fact that he worked in the mid 3rd cent. BC [1].  Bacchius [1] in his memoir on the early followers of Herophilus (Galen in Hippocratis Epidemiarum 6 comment. 4,10 = CMG V 10,2,2,203), mentions that C. quoted Homer and the Greek tragic writers if his patients told him that they were afraid of dying. He gave them to understand by this that only the immortals could esca…

Acron [of Acragas]

(131 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἄκρων; Ákrōn) [of Acragas] Son of a doctor of the same name (Diog. Laert. 8,65), older contemporary of Hippocrates. He was supposed to have rid Athens of the pest by lighting big fires in 430 BC (Plut. De Is. et Os. 80 [cf. 1]). The  Empiricists (Ps.-Gal. 14,638) considered A. as founder of their school and as such he entered the doxographic tradition [2]. It is possible that he participated in the debates regarding the epistemological value of sensory perception (he was familiar …

Euryphon of Cnidus

(339 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Greek physician, mid 5th cent. BC. The story recounted in Sor. Vita Hipp. 5, that E. cured Perdiccas II of Macedonia of an illness caused by unrequited love, arose comparatively late and is rather fantastical. According to Galen (17a,886), he provided the most important contributions to the so-called ‘Cnidian Sentences’, which have survived only in fragments [1. 65-66; 2. 14-26]. In the opinion of some ancient scholars some of his works, especially those dealing with dietetics, were taken up into the Hippocratic Corpus (Gal. 6,473; 7,960; 16,3). E. regarded disea…

Summaria Alexandrinorum

(296 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] In Late Antiquity in Alexandria [1] writings by Galenus and to a lesser extent by Hippocrates [6] were assembled into a medical compendium. Known as the '16 Books of Galen', it covers the basic areas of medicine  (including anatomy, physiology and therapeutics). According to Arab sources [1], a number of teachers ( Iatrosophistḗs ) in Alexandria are supposed to have written a series of summaries or abridgements of the books contained in this compendium, which were then collected under the title SA and translated into Arabic and perhaps also into Hebrew [2]. In…

Philagrius

(127 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Φιλάγριος; Philágrios). Doctor from Epirus, fl. 3rd-4th cents. AD; he practised in Thessalonica and was the author of more than 70 books: treatises on dietetics, gout, dropsy and rabies as well as a commentary on Hippocrates [1]. He is often cited by later authors, especially in Arabic, for his treatment of diseases of the liver and spleen. Doctrinally, he often follows Galen, but pays particular attention to pneuma (Pneumatists) as the co-ordinating force in organisms. His name appears often in garbled form as Filaretus (e.g. frr. 131-133: Rhazes, Continens, V…

Lippitudo

(175 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] An eye disease characterized by exudation, covering a variety of specific diseases like trachoma and conjunctivitis. A dry variety of lippitudo, xerophthalmía, in which the purulent eyes become stuck shut over night is also described (Celsus, De medicina 6,6,29). Celsus [7] (ibid. 6,6,2) reports a large number of ointments and other agents against lippitudo, an extremely common condition; this is confirmed by many ‘oculists' stamps’ for eye ointments ( Kollyrion) with the inscriptions ‘against lippitudo’ and by the large number of manufacturers of such …

Adamantius

(110 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Doctor Doctor and iatrosophist, who as Jew was expelled from Alexandria in c. AD 412, converted to Christianity in Constantinople and returned to Alexandria. Author of an abridged version of the Physiognomy of  Polemon of Laodicea, (ed. R. Förster 1893). Some prescriptions, which are ascribed to him, are handed down by Oribasius (Syn. ad Eustathium 2,58-59; 3,24-25; 9,57). He is probably not the author of the treatise ‘About the Winds’, Ed. V. Rose 1864), which refers to Peripatetic meteorology and apparently dates from the 3rd cent. AD.  …

Vulva

(163 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] According to Varro [2] (Rust. 2,1,19) derived from Latin volvere, 'roll', by which is meant the swathing of a fetus. In the early Imperial Period, vulva, like matrix, was used in addition to the technical term uterus as a term for the womb [1]. All three terms remained in use throughout Antiquity; in late Latin medical authors, vulva seldom occurs. In the course of time the term changed in meaning, in that it also included the vagina (Celsus, De medicina 4,1,12) and even the clitoris (Iuv. 6,129). In his Etymology (Isid. Orig. 11,1,137), Isidorus [9] of Seville connec…

Archiatros

(357 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (ἀρχιατρός; archiatrós). In the original use of the name during Hellenistic times, archiatros was the title of the king's personal physician. The term first appeared in connection with the Seleucids (IDelos 1547, cf. TAM V 1,689). A similar title, wr sinw, ‘supreme physician’, is documented in pre-Ptolemaic Egyptian texts; it is missing from early Ptolemaic papyri purely by accident. Dating to 50 BC, documentations are extant from Egypt (Athenagoras, SB 5216) and Pontus (IDelos 1573) [2. 218-226]. A physician known at t…

Pneumatists

(494 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (πνευματικοί/ pneumatikoí, Latin pneumatici). Greek medical sect, founded by Athenaeus [6] of Attaleia under the influence of Stoicism. Galen (De causis contentivis 2) makes Athenaeus a pupil of Posidonius [2], which might indicate a date in the latter half of the 1st cent. BC. However, Cornelius Celsus [7] who wrote in Rome in the mid-1st cent. AD, seems not to have been aware of this sect at all, and its most famous representatives - Agathinus, Herodotus [3], Antyllus [2] and Archi…

Mustio

(169 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (also Muscio) Translator and adapter into Latin of two gynaecological treatises by  Soranus of Ephesus.One of these, now lost in Greek, was a shorter manual of questions and answers; the second the celebrated Gynaikeîa (‘Gynaecology). Some MSS of M.'s compendium end with an appendix listing vaginal pessaries. Although not a faithful translation of Soranus, M.'s adaptation does offer help in the constitution of the Greek text, and it was the most popular treatise on gynaecology to survive from Antiquity into the …

Agnellus [of Ravenna]

(294 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Iatrosophist and commentator of medical texts around AD 600, Milan. Ambr. G 108 f. contains his commentaries on Galen's De sectis, Ars medica, De pulsibus ad Teuthram and Ad Glauconem, just as they were recorded by Simplicius (not the famous Aristotle commentator!). The first mentioned is in many places in agreement with a commentary which is ascribed to Iohannes Alexandrinus or Gesius, as well as Greek passages of text, which are associated with Iohannes and Archonides (?). As controversial as the question …

Charmis

(123 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Χάρμις; Chármis) Greek physician from Massilia, who went to Rome c. AD 55. Thanks to his cold-water cures he soon made a name there, and gained many wealthy patients (Plin. HN 29,10). For one treatment he invoiced a patient from the provinces for HS 200,000 (Plin. HN 29, 22), and demanded a similarly exorbitant price of 1,000 Attic drachmas for a single dose of an antidote (Gal. 14,114,127). During his lifetime C. invested HS 20 million in public construction projects in Massilia, and at h…

Lead poisoning

(406 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Even though the analysis of skeletons has shown that lead played a larger role in the classical period than in prehistoric times, the measured values are lower than expected in view of the considerable rise in lead production between 600 BC and AD 500 and its use in the manufacture of household goods and water pipes [1; 2; 3]. As the symptoms of lead poisoning (LP) are very similar to other diseases, there are hardly any descriptions which can be taken as referring to it unambiguo…

Aretaeus

(401 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀρεταῖος; Aretaîos) of Cappadocia. Greek Hippocratic physician who was influenced by Pneumatic theory. [13] therefore assigned him to the middle of the 1st cent. AD. A.'s name was first mentioned in the late 2nd. cent as the author of a text about prophylactics in Ps.-Alex. Aphr. De febribus 1, 92, 97, 105. However, Galen repeats A.'s story of a leper that appeared in Morb. chron. 4,13,20 without any reference to the source in Subfig. emp. 10 = Deichgräber 75-9. Thirty years later…

Galen of Pergamum

(3,449 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Γαλήνος; Galḗnos) [German version] A. Life AD 129 to c. 216, Greek doctor and philosopher. As the son of a prosperous architect named Aelius or Iulius Nicon (not Claudius, as older accounts have it), G. enjoyed a wide education, especially in philosophy. When he was 17, Asclepius appeared to Nicon in a dream which turned G. towards a medical career. After studying with Satyrus, Aiphicianus and Stratonicus in Pergamum, G. went to Smyrna c. 149 to learn from Pelops, a pupil of the Hippocratic Quintus. From there he journeyed to Corinth to find Numisianus, another pupi…

Theodas

(102 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Θεοδᾶς; Theodâs) from Laodicea. Greek physician c. 125 AD; he and Menodotus [2] were pupils of the sceptic Antiochus [20]; he was a leading representative of the School of the Empiricists. He wrote (1.) Chief points (Κεφάλαια), which Galenus and a later (otherwise unknown) Theodosius commented on; (2.) On the parts of medicine (Περὶ τῶν τῆς ἰατρικῆς μερῶν), in which he emphasised the significance of autopsy, historíē ('research') and analogy; (3.) an Introduction to medicine (Εἰσαγώγη). His works were  still being copied in the 3rd cent. in Egypt. Only…

Training (medical)

(600 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Although most healers in Antiquity learned their trade from their fathers or as autodidacts, some also went to study with a master (e.g. Pap. Lond. 43, 2nd cent. BC), or travelled to medical strongholds to receive training. Remains of these teaching centres are to be found in Babylonia [1] and in Egypt, where the ‘House of Life’ in Sais, rebuilt by Darius c. 510 BC, may have served as such a centre and scriptorium [2]. If, in the Greek world, the Hippocratic tradition (Hippocrates) emphasized the superiority of healers trained at Cos, Cnidus …

Surgery

(1,412 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] A. Egyptian The high prestige widely accorded to Egyptian medical practitioners for their surgical skills (Hdt. 3,129), was well-earned. Skeletal finds show the successful treatment of bone fractures, esp. in the arms, and rare cases of trepanation. However, there is no reliable indication of surgical intervention in body cavities [1; 2]. The great diversity of knives, spoons, saws and needles reflects a highly-developed specialism, rooted in wide-ranging medical practice. Early pap…

Iatromaia

(95 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (‘birth-helper’, ‘midwife’). Midwifery was usually practiced by women but was not exclusively in their hands. A Parian inscription, for example, records two male birth-helpers (IG 12,5,199) and the preserved treatises on midwifery address a male readership. Iatromaia as an occupational name appears in two Roman inscriptions of the 3rd and 4th cents. AD (CIL 6,9477f.); in one, a Valeria Verecunda is named as the ‘first iatromaia in her region’, an epithet that seems to refer to the quality of her work rather than a position in a collegium.  Midwife Nutton, Vivian (Lon…

Hospital

(2,037 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] A. Definition Hospital in the sense of public institutions for the medical care of exclusively sick people are not encountered before the 4th cent. AD, and even then the majority of terms used (Greek xenṓn, xenodocheîon, ptōcheîon, gerontokomeíon, Latin xenon, xenodochium, ptochium, gerontocomium, valetudinarium; ‘guesthouse’, ‘pilgrims' hostel’, ‘poorhouse’, ‘old people's home’, ‘hospital’) point to a diversity of functions, target groups and services that partly overlap with each other. Private houses for sick members o…

Gesius

(298 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] or Gessios, from Petra (Steph. Byz. s.v. Γέα/ Géa), physician and teacher, end of the 5th/early 6th cent. AD, close friend of Aeneas [3] (Epist. 19; 20) and Procopius of Gaza (Epist. 38; 58; 123; 134). He studied medicine under the Jew Domnos (Suda s.v. Γέσιος/ Gésios) in Alexandria, where he practised as   iatrosophistḗs (teacher of medicine). Although opposed to Christianity, he was baptized at the instigation of the emperor Zeno but retained a cynically negative attitude towards his new religion. He protected th…

Mnesitheus

(118 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Μνησίθεος; Mnēsítheos). Athenian doctor, fl. 350 BC. His tomb was seen by Paus. (1,37,4). He was wealthy enough to erect statues and was one of the dedicators of the beautiful ex-voto inscription to Asclepius IG II2 1449. He is frequently associated with Dieuches [1]; he wrote extensively about dietetics including diets for children, and is counted amongst the more important Dogmatic physicians (Dogmatists) [1]. Galen ascribes to him a logical classification of illnesses that follows Plato's method (fr. 10,11 Bert…

Eryximachus

(89 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ερυξίμαχος; Eryxímachos) Son of  Acumenus, Athenian doctor and Asclepiad, 5th cent. BC. As a friend of the sophist Hippias (Pl. Prt. 315A) and of Phaedrus (Pl. Phdr. 268A; Symp. 177A), he plays an important part in Plato's Symposium, in which he delivers a long speech in honour of Eros (185E-188E). His slightly pedantic manner earns him only the good-natured laughter of the invited guests but contemporary parallels to his linking of natural philosophy and medicine can be found in the Corpus Hippocraticum. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Medicine

(5,440 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
Nutton, Vivian (London) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The history of Classical medicine developed in different ways in the three cultures of Byzantium, Islam (Arabic medicine, Arabic-Islamic Cultural Sphere) and Latin Christianity. The first two shared a heritage of late-Antique Galenism, which was far less pervasive in Western Europe and Northern Africa than in the Greek world and among the Syriac Christians of the Near East. From the 11th cent. onwards, Western Europe rediscovered Galenism lar…

Corpus Medicorum

(178 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] This research project was begun in 1901 at the suggestion of the Danish scholar Johan Ludvig Heiberg and with the assistance of the Saxon and Danish Academies of Science and the Puschmann Foundation was established in the Berlin Academy of Sciences. Its self-defined task was the editing of all extant ancient medical authors, initially under the directorship of Hermann Diels. Diels' catalogue of manuscripts by Greek physicians (1906), together with a supplement (1907), remains to …

Alexipharmaka

(207 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (ἀλεξιφάρμακα; alexiphármaka). ‘Medications that protect from poisons’. The search for effective antidotes is as old as the poisons themselves.  Theophrastus ( c. 380-288/5 BC) already presented discussions of a few antidotes (fr. 360, 361 Fortenbaugh), but a more serious investigation into poisons seems to have begun in Alexandria with  Herophilus and  Erasistratus (around 280 BC) and was continued by Apollodorus and Nicander of Colophon (2nd cent. BC), whose Theriaka and Alexipharmaka are the oldest surviving treatises on the topic. Alexipharmaka can be us…

Hippocratism

(604 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Even though in Byzantium and the medieval Christian Occident Hippocrates was seen as the founder of medicine and given legendary status, his teachings, as compiled in the Corpus Hippocraticum, were studied only on a very narrow textual basis, and the few available texts were known only through Galen's interpretation or from the lemmata of the Galenic commentaries on Hippocrates. In the Western medicine of the Middle Ages, pseudonymous treatises were at least as influential as those contained in the modern edition of Hippocrates' texts, with the exception of the Aphor…

Mental illness

(976 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] A. Near Eastern Mental illnesses (MI) are described in both Jewish and Babylonian texts. Sometimes physical signs are indicated, as in epilepsy, sometimes behaviours are described as in 1 Sam 16:14-16; 21:13-15, but all MI are ascribed to the intervention of God, or, in texts from 500 BC onwards, of a variety of demons [1]. Treatment might be limited to confinement (Jer 29:26-8) or exorcism, including music, but the Jewish ‘Therapeutae’ took an approach that involved the entire lifes…

Acumenus [of Athens]

(72 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Ἀκουμενός; Akoumenós) [of Athens] Doctor from the late 5th cent. BC. As father of the doctor  Eryximachus, who was a friend of Socrates and Phaedrus, A. emerges briefly as a fictitious dialogue partner in Pl. Phdr. 268a and 269a, in order to emphasize the thesis that the art of medicine comprises more than merely knowledge, which has been gleaned from books and teachers. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Phylotimus

(248 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Φυλότιμος; Phylótimos) of Cos. Physician and chief magistrate ( mónarchos) of Cos in the first half of the 3rd cent. BC; along with Herophilus [1], he was a pupil of Praxagoras and became one of the classic authorities of Greek medicine (cf. Gal. De examinando medico 5,2), although only fragments of his writings now survive. He pursued anatomical interests, placed the seat of the soul in the heart and held that the brain was merely a useless extension of the spinal medulla (Gal. De usu pa…

Humoral theory

(722 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] The idea that physical health was connected with bodily fluids was widespread. Mucus is already mentioned in ancient Egyptian medicine, and also in Babylonian medicine particular attention was paid to the quantity and colour of bodily fluids. The Greeks regarded   ichṓr of the gods, blood (α(̃ιμα; haîma) in humans and sap (χυμός; chymós) in plants as the bearers of life. These fluids (χυμοί/ chymoí, Latin humores) could also become dangerous in excess. Two humours, phlegm (φλέγμα; phlégma) and bile (χόλος; chólos or χολή; cholḗ), are already represented as hazard…

Eustochius

(53 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Evodus (Εὐστόχιος; Eustóchios) from Alexandria. He encountered  Plotinus towards the end of the latter's life ( c. AD 269), who converted him to philosophy. E. also acted as Plotinus' physician, accompanied him on his last journey, and was with him when he died (Porphyrius V. Plot. 7). Nutton, Vivian (London)

Hippocratic Oath

(704 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Documentary evidence for a use of the HO in Late Antiquity is ambiguous. Gregory of Nazianzus (Greg. Naz. Or. 7,10) reported that his brother Caesarius did not have to swear the oath as a medical student in Alexandria, thus implying that others probably had to. However, there is no record for the Byzantine or Muslim world to confirm any official obligation to swear this oath, even though it was evidently well-known. In practice, it was superseded by the Galenic concept equating e…

Leprosy

(396 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] also ‘Hansen's Disease’. A chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae affecting the peripheral nerves, and often also the skin. Palaeopathological finds prove its existence in the Mediterranean area only for the Hellenistic period [1], but texts from Babylon, Egypt and Israel from c. 800 BC onwards describe disfiguring skin diseases, among which could be included leprosy, even though the descriptions probably refer to psoriasis. The biblical name of the disease ṣaraʿat, in the Middle Ages wrongly translated as leprosy, referred to a disease whic…

Dietetics

(1,163 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] I. Greece Greek medicine is fundamentally different from Egyptian and Babylonian medicine because it allots dietetics in the broader sense of a regime of eating, drinking, exercise and bathing, a key role within therapeutics [2. 395-402; 3]. Originally, dietetics referred to the administering of balanced foods in liquid, pasty or solid form, depending on the degree of illness (Hippocr. De medicina vetere 5 [4. 241-257]). However, about the mid 5th cent. BC it expanded well beyond a …

Anonymus de herbis

(74 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Several MSS of Dioscorides contain an anonymous poem of 215 hexameter verses about the qualities of herbs, which was written probably in the 3rd cent. in highly stylized Greek. It refers back to Nicander, Dioscorides and Andromachus [4, the Elder] According to [1], the poetic language shows similarities with the Orphica (newest edition: [1; cf. 2]). Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography 1 E. Heitsch, in: AAWG 1964, 23-38 2 NGAW 1963, 2, 44-49.

Largius Designatianus

(98 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Medical writer, 4th cent. AD, author of a Latin paraphrase of a Greek letter to (an undefined) king Antigonus that is passed down under the name of Hippocrates [6] and that contained a dietetic plan and advice on treating diseases of the head, chest, belly and kidneys. This paraphrase is extant in the introduction to a medical treatise of Marcellus Empiricus, where it is preceded by a letter of L. to his sons. Both texts probably belonged to the introduction to a medical work by L. that is lost today. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Iacobus Psychrestus

(108 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] Physician, the son of Hesychius of Damascus, changed his residence in the early 6th cent. AD in order to join his father's medical practice in Constantinople. He treated emperor Leo, whereupon he became a   comes and   archiatros (Chron. pasch. 8254a; Malalas, Chronographia 370 Dindorf; Photius, Bibliotheca 344A). As a pagan philosopher who was honoured in Athens and Constantinople with statues, he ordered the rich to help the poor. The latter he incidentally treated without charging a fee. His nic…

Galenism

(389 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Whereas between about AD 500 and 1100,  Galen was almost unknown in Western Europe, the orthodox  medicine of the Byzantine and Muslim world was substantially based on his concepts that were increasingly systemized and put into a logical order, with a particular focus on their theoretical content.  Galen's monotheism and teleology commended his works also to an environment dominated by religion. From the 12th cent. on, Galenism reached Western Europe in an Arabic guise where it s…

Salpe

(75 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] (Σάλπη/ Sálpē). Midwife of the Hellenistic era, whose medical and cosmetic recipes were quoted by Plinius [1] in his Historia naturalis (Plin. HN 28,38; 28,66; 28,82; 28,262; 32,135; 32,140). Athenaeus [3] (Ath. 322a) knows a S. as the author of παίγνια/ paígnia (‘light poems’), but it is problematic to consider the two identical [1]. Nutton, Vivian (London) Bibliography 1 D. Bain, Salpe's ΠΑΙΓΝΙΑ; Athenaeus 322a and Plin. H. N. 28,38, in: CQ 48, 1998, 262-268.

Chirurgie

(1,314 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] A. Ägyptisch Das hohe Ansehen, in dem ägypt. Heilkundige wegen ihrer chirurgischen Fertigkeiten in weiten Kreisen standen (Hdt. 3,129), war wohlverdient. Skelettfunde lassen auf erfolgreiche Behandlung von Knochenbrüchen, bes. im Bereich des Armes, und in seltenen Fällen auf Trepanationen schließen. Für operative Eingriffe in Körperhöhlen gibt es jedoch keinen sicheren Anhalt [1; 2]. Die große Vielfalt von Messern, Löffeln, Sägen und Nadeln spiegelt ein ausgeprägtes Spezialistentu…

Alexipharmaka

(219 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] “Medikamente, die Gifte abwehren”. Die Suche nach wirksamen Gegengiften ist so alt wie die Gifte selbst. Auch wenn sich schon bei Theophrastos (ca. 380-288/5 v. Chr.) Besprechungen einzelner Gegengifte finden (fr. 360, 361 Fortenbaugh), scheint die ernsthafte Unters. von Giften in Alexandreia mit Herophilos und Erasistratos (um 280 v. Chr.) ihren Anfang genommen zu haben und von Apollodoros und Nikandros von Kolophon (2. Jh. v. Chr.), dessen Theriaká und Alexiphármaka die ältesten überlieferten Abhandlungen zu diesem Thema darstellen, weitergeführ…

Melancholie

(555 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] (μέλαινα χολή/ mélaina cholḗ, “schwarze Galle”). Der vierte Körpersaft in der durch Hippokrates ( De natura hominis, Kap. 4) und später durch Rufus von Ephesos und Galen repräsentierten hippokratischen Trad. Man glaubte, er überwiege im Herbst; er wurde mit dem Element Erde sowie mit den Qualitäten kalt und trocken assoziiert. Wegen seiner angeblich zahlreichen tödlichen Eigenschaften sah man in ihm den Gegenspieler des Bluts [1]. Galen zufolge (De atra bile 5,104-148 K.) entstand er in der Milz…

Corpus Medicorum

(167 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) RWG
[English version] Auf Anregung des Dänen J.L. Heiberg im Jahre 1901 gegr. und mit Hilfe der sächsischen und dänischen Akad. der Wiss. und der Puschmann-Stiftung in der Akad. der Wiss. zu Berlin angesiedelt, wurde dieses Unternehmen, das sich die Edition aller überlieferten medizinischen Autoren der Ant. zur Aufgabe gestellt hat, zunächst von Hermann Diels geleitet. Dessen Katalog der Hss. der griech. Ärzte (1906) nebst Nachtrag (1907) bleibt das Standardverzeichnis zu griechischsprachigen Hss. aus…

Galenismus

(358 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) RWG
[English version] Während Galen von etwa 500 n. Chr. bis 1100 n. Chr. in Westeuropa nahezu unbekannt war, fußte die Schulmedizin in der byz. und muslimischen Welt ganz wesentlich auf seinen Vorstellungen, die zunehmend systematisiert und mit bes. Akzentuierung ihres theoretischen Gehalts logisch geordnet wurden. Galens Monotheismus und Teleologie empfahlen seine Schriften auch einem rel. geprägten Umfeld. Vom 12. Jh. an erreichte ein arabisch gekleideter G. Westeuropa, wo er an den Medizinschulen …

Hippokratismus

(550 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) RWG
[English version] Obwohl Hippokrates in Byzanz und im christl. Abendland des MA als Begründer der Medizin galt und geradezu zur Legende erhoben wurde, beschäftigte man sich mit den im Corpus Hippocraticum vertretenen Lehren nur auf schmalster Textbasis, wobei man die wenigen Texte entweder nur in der Deutung Galens oder aus den Lemmata der galenischen Hippokrateskommentare kannte. Im MA waren in der westl. Medizin pseudonyme Abhandlungen mindestens ebenso einflußreich wie die Abhandlungen, die unsere heutige Hippokratesausgabe enthält. Ausnahmen bilden die Aphorismen, das Pr…

Erotianos

(297 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Griech. Grammatiker, Mitte oder Ende des 1. Jh. n.Chr., Verfasser eines Glossars hippokratischer Wörter, das er Andromachos [4 oder 5], einem Arzt am kaiserlichen Hof in Rom, widmete [2; 3]. Der überlieferte alphabetische Aufbau des Glossars stammt nicht von E., da er in seinem Vorwort (9), ausdrücklich betont, er habe die Wörter in der Folge ihres Vorkommens in ca. 37 hippokratischen Schriften erklärt, die sich ihrerseits klassifizieren ließen in 1) semiotische, 2) physiologisch…

Philagrios

(114 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] (Φιλάγριος). Arzt aus Epeiros, wirkte im 3. bis 4. Jh.n.Chr., praktizierte in Thessalonike; Verf. von mehr als 70 B.: Abh. über Diätetik, Gicht, Wassersucht und Tollwut sowie ein Hippokrates-Komm. [1]. Von späteren, v.a. arabischen Autoren wird er häufig mit seinen therapeutischen Verfahren bei Leber- und Milzkrankheiten zitiert. Was seinen theoretischen Hintergrund betrifft, so folgt er oftmals Galenos, doch legt er besonderen Wert auf das Pneuma (Pneumatiker) als koordinierende Kraft im Organismus. Sein Name wird häufig in Filaretus entstellt (z.B. fr…

Definitiones medicae

(213 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Die Verwendung von definitiones (“Erörterungen”) war in der medizinischen Lehre - sowohl in der griech. als auch in der röm. - weit verbreitet (Gal. 1,306 K.; 19,346-7 K.). Das umfangreichste erh. Werk dieser Art sind die Galen zugeschriebenen d.m. (19,346-462 K.), deren Echtheit bereits in der Spätant. angezweifelt wurde (Schol. in Oreib. Syn, CMG 6,2,1, 250,29). Wellmann [1. 66] vertrat die Meinung, daß der Verf. gegen Ende des 1. Jh.n.Chr. lebte und der pneumatischen Schule angehörte. Aber auch wenn das Werk pneum…

Akumenos [aus Athen]

(61 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Arzt des späten 5. Jh. v. Chr. Als Vater des Arztes Eryximachos, der mit Sokrates und Phaidros befreundet war, taucht A. kurz als fiktiver Gesprächspartner in Plat. Phaidr. 268a und 269a auf, um die These zu unterstreichen, die ärztliche Kunst umfasse mehr als lediglich das aus Büchern und von Lehrern gewonnene Wissen. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Largius Designatianus

(89 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Medizinschriftsteller, 4. Jh. n.Chr., Verf. einer lat. Paraphrase eines griech. Briefes an einen (nicht näher bestimmten) König Antigonos, der unter dem Namen des Hippokrates [6] überl. ist und einen Diätplan sowie Therapieempfehlungen für Kopf-, Brust-, Bauch- und Nierenkrankheiten enthält. Diese Paraphrase hat sich in der Einleitung zu einer medizinischen Abh. von Marcellus Empiricus erh., wo ihr ein Brief des L. an seine Söhne vorangestellt ist. Es ist wahrscheinlich, daß beid…

Hikesios

(103 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Griech. Arzt, Oberhaupt einer erasistrateischen Schule in Smyrna, frühes 1. Jh. v.Chr. (Strab. 12,8,20); schrieb über Diätetik (Plin. nat. 14,130; 20,35; 27,31), Embryologie (Tert. de anima 25) und Zahnschmerz (Plin. 12,40). Erfinder eines berühmten schwarzen Pflasters, das “bei jeder Wundart helfe” (Galen 13,787). Galen, der vier verschiedene Rezepturen für dieses Mittel anführt (13,780; 787; 810; 812) und dabei auf vier Autoren (Andromachos [5] d.J., Heras, Herakleides [27] und…

Krankenhaus

(539 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) RWG
[English version] In der Spätant. war das K. ein Ort innerhalb eines rel. geprägten Umfeldes, an dem man sich um Notleidende einschließlich alter und kranker Menschen kümmerte. Im Früh-MA entstanden entlang der großen Pilgerrouten Ketten kleinerer Herbergen. Viele Benediktinerklöster verfügten über eigene Krankenstationen, die auch den Bedürfnissen einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit gedient haben mögen. Vom 11. Jh. an wurden K. unter dem erneuten Einfluß des östl. Mittelmeerraums - allerdings ohne Bin…

Anonymus Londiniensis

(475 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Der Papyrus inv. 137 der British Library in London ist der wichtigste überlieferte medizinische Papyrus. Er wurde Ende des 1., Anf. des 2. Jh. n. Chr. geschrieben und gliedert sich in drei Teile: Sp. 1-4,17 enthalten eine Reihe von Definitionen, die sich auf die páthē von Körper und Seele beziehen (vgl. die Diskussion bei Gal. meth. med. 1); in Sp. 4,21-20,50 finden sich unterschiedliche Ansichten über Krankheitsursachen; die Spalten 21,1-39,32 behandeln die Physiologie. Die Schrift sowie viele interne Charakteristika deut…

Antidotarium

(260 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] bezeichnet urspr. Abhandlungen über Gegengifte, z. B. Gal. de antidotis, 14,1-209 (übers. u. komm. von [1, vgl. 6]) und Philumenos (hrsg. von [2]), im ma. Lat. dagegen alle Schriften, die zusammengesetzte Arzneimittel zum Gegenstand hatten. Der genaue Zeitpunkt dieses Bedeutungswandels ist unklar, da in den meisten spätant. Arzneimittelsammlungen weder Titel noch Autoren aufgeführt sind. Der früheste Beleg des Titels findet sich erst in einem Ms. aus dem 11. Jh., der sich jedoch …

Iakobos Psychrestos

(100 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Arzt, Sohn des Hesychios von Damaskos, wechselte im frühen 6. Jh. n.Chr. den Wohnsitz, um in die Arztpraxis seines Vaters in Konstantinopel einsteigen zu können. Er behandelte Kaiser Leo und wurde comes und archiatros (Chr. pasch. 8254a; Malalas, Chronographia 370 Dindorf; Photios, Bibliotheca 344A). Als paganer Philosoph, der in Athen und Konstantinopel mit Statuen geehrt wurde, befahl er den Reichen, den Armen zu helfen, die er im übrigen ohne Honorar behandelte. Sein Spitzname leitet sich …

Lippitudo

(162 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Durch Exsudation gekennzeichnete Augenkrankheit, die eine Vielfalt spezifischer Erkrankungen wie Trachom und Konjunktivitis umfaßt. Eine trockene Variante der l., die xerophthalmía, bei der die eiternden Augen über Nacht verkleben, ist ebenfalls beschrieben (Celsus, De medicina 6,6,29). Celsus [7] (ebd. 6,6,2) berichtet von einer Vielzahl von Salben und sonstigen Mitteln gegen die l., eine ungemein verbreitete Krankheit; dies findet Bestätigung in den zahlreichen sog. “Okulistenstempeln” für Augensalben (Kollyrion) mit der Aufschrift ‘gegen l.’ sowi…

Iatrosophistes

(208 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Urspr. Bezeichnung eines Lehrers der Medizin (v.a. in Alexandreia), konnte sich i. in späterer Zeit auf jeden erfahrenen Praktiker beziehen ( medicus sapientissimus, Corpus Glossatorum Latinorum 3,600,32 Goetz), sei es in der Schulmedizin (z.B. Agnellus, In Galeni De sectis commentarium 33) oder in der magischen Heilkunst (Ps.-Kallisthenes, Vita Alexandri 1,3) [1]. Entgegen der Emendierung durch v. Arnim in Dion Chrys. 33,6 dürfte der Begriff nicht vor dem späten 4. Jh. n.Chr. geprägt worden sein (Epi…

Akesias

(46 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] (Ἀκεσίας). Griech. Arzt des 3. Jh. v. Chr. (?). Einem vorsätzlich zweideutigen Sprichwort zufolge behandelte er nur die, die am schlimmsten (Leiden oder Arzt) litten (Aristoph. Byz., Zenob. 1,52). Möglicherweise schrieb er auch über die Kochkunst (Athen. 12, 516c). Nutton, Vivian (London)

Penis

(170 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] (φαλλός/ phallós, lat. mentula; zu Synonyma vgl. [1]). Um 250 v.Chr. hatte man seine Anatomie (Eichel, Hodensack und Hoden) verstanden, doch tat man sich mit der Erklärung seiner Physiologie, v.a. der Erektionsfähigkeit, schwer. Galenos (de usu partium 15,3) nannte ihn ein ‘nervenähnliches Teil’ und diskutierte in De motibus dubiis die mögliche Beteiligung des Vorstellungsvermögens an der Erektion. Wenn auch die circumcisio (Beschneidung) im wesentlichen auf jüdische Kreise beschränkt blieb, wurde die Infibulation (Vers…

Eryximachos

(81 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Sohn des Akumenos, athenischer Arzt und Asklepiade, 5. Jh. v.Chr. Als Freund des Sophisten Hippias (Plat. Prot. 315A) und des Phaidros (Plat. Phaidr. 268A; symp. 177A) spielt er eine beachtliche Rolle in Platons Symposion, in dem er eine lange Rede zu Ehren des Eros hält (185E-188E). Seine leicht pedantische Art erntet bei den geladenen Gästen nicht mehr als wohlwollendes Gelächter, doch finden sich im Corpus Hippocraticum zeitgenössische Parallelen zu seiner Verknüpfung von Naturphilos. und Medizin. Nutton, Vivian (London)

Geschlechtskrankheiten

(380 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Mangels eindeutiger diagnostischer Zeugnisse fällt es schwer, die ant. Geschichte der G. zu rekonstruieren. Harmlosere Infektionen wie der Herpes genitalis (Hippokr. De mulierum affectibus 1,90 = 8,214-8 L.) und die Chlamydieninfektion [2. 220] sind gut bezeugt, die beiden großen Geschlechtskrankheiten der Moderne, Gonorrhoe und Syphilis, lassen sich jedoch nur schwer im Überlieferungsmaterial ausmachen. Gonorrhoe, eine griech. Wortschöpfung vermutlich aus hell. Zeit, bezeichnet …

Anatomie

(1,823 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] A. Ägypten und alter Orient A. im Sinne eines durch Sektionen gewonnenen, systematischen Wissens über den menschlichen Körper scheint eine griech. Erfindung zu sein. Wir wissen zwar, daß babylon. (und später auch etr.) Hepatoskopie die Entnahme einer Tierleber umfaßte, doch abgesehen von einer relativ differenzierten Terminologie für dieses Organ und von der Zuordnung bestimmter Emotionen zu den Kardinalorganen schweigen babylonische Texte zum Thema A. [17]. Anfänge anatomischer Forsc…

Euryphon von Knidos

(315 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Griech. Arzt, Mitte des 5. Jh. v.Chr. Die bei Soran. vita Hipp. 5 überlieferte Erzählung, derzufolge E. Perdikkas II. von Makedonien von einer Krankheit aufgrund unglücklicher Liebe geheilt haben soll, ist vergleichsweise spät entstanden und ziemlich phantastisch. Galen zufolge (17a,886) schuf er die wichtigsten Beiträge zu den sogenannten “Knidischen Sentenzen”, die nur in Fr. überliefert sind [1. 65-66; 2. 14-26]. Einige seiner Werke, bes. solche diätetischen Inhalts, sollen na…

Pleistonikos

(322 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] (Πλειστόνικος). Arzt, wirkte um 270 v.Chr., Schüler von Praxagoras von Kos (Celsus, De medicina, praef. 20) und einer der “Klassiker” der griech. Medizin in der sog. Dogmatischen Trad. (Dogmatiker [2]; Gal. methodus medendi 2,5; Gal. de examinando medico 5,2). Seine Persönlichkeit auszumachen, fällt schwer, da der Überl. - d.h. im wesentlichen Galenos - zufolge seine Ansichten mit denen des Praxagoras oder anderer Dogmatiker übereinstimmten. Wie sein Lehrer war auch P. ein überze…

Galenos aus Pergamon

(3,268 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] A. Leben 129 bis ca. 216 n.Chr., griech. Arzt und Philosoph. Als Sohn eines wohlhabenden Architekten namens Aelius oder Iulius Nikon (nicht Claudius, wie ältere Ausgaben wollen) genoß G. eine breitangelegte Erziehung, v.a. in der Philos. Als er 17 Jahre alt war, erschien Asklepios dem Nikon in einem Traum, der G. für die medizinische Laufbahn bestimmte. Nach einem Studium bei Satyros, Aiphikianos und Stratonikos in Pergamon ging G. ca. 149 nach Smyrna, um Pelops, einen Schüler des …

Herakleianos

(127 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Arzt und Anatom aus Alexandreia, wirkte um 152 n.Chr. Der Sohn des Anatomen und Lehrers Numisianos stellte einen Auszug von dessen Lehre zusammen (Gal. de musculorum dissectione 18B, 926, 935 K.), in dem er ein beachtliches anatomisches Wissen unter Beweis stellte (Gal. Admin. anat. 16,1). Er unterhielt sich mit Galen bei dessen Ankunft in Alexandreia um 151 n.Chr., seinen anatomischen Vorlesungen folgte Galen mit anfänglichem Wohlwollen (CMG V,9,1, S. 70). Als Galen später die n…

Adamantios

(93 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] Arzt und Iatrosophist, der als Jude um ca. 412 n. Chr. aus Alexandreia vertrieben wurde, in Konstantinopel zum Christentum konvertierte und nach Alexandreia zurückkehrte. Autor einer Kurzfassung der Physiognomik des Polemon aus Laodikeia, (Ed. R. Förster 1893). Einige Rezepturen, die ihm zugeschrieben werden, sind von Oreibasios (Syn. ad Eustathium 2,58-59; 3,24-25; 9,57) überliefert worden. Vermutlich ist er nicht der Autor der Abhandlung ›Über die Winde‹, Ed. V. Rose 1864), die…

Eustochios

(47 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] aus Alexandreia. Traf gegen Ende seines Lebens (ca. 269 n.Chr.) Plotin und wurde von ihm zur Philos. bekehrt. Er wirkte auch als dessen Arzt, begleitete ihn auf seiner letzten Reise und war bei seinem Tod zugegen (Porphyrios v. Plot. 7). Nutton, Vivian (London)

Lepra

(367 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London)
[English version] auch “Hansen-Krankheit”. Eine chronische, durch das Mycobacterium leprae hervorgerufene Erkrankung mit Befall der peripheren Nerven, zumeist auch der Haut. Paläopathologische Funde belegen ihr Vorkommen im mediterranen Raum erst für die hell. Zeit [1], doch enthalten Texte aus Babylon, Ägypten und Israel schon seit etwa 800 v.Chr. Beschreibungen entstellender Hautkrankheiten, zu denen man, wenn sich solche Beschreibungen auch eher auf die Psoriasis beziehen, auch die L. zählen könnte. M…
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