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Verbal Inspiration

(398 words)

Author(s): Prenner, Karl
[German Version] One implication of the divine verbal inspiration (Revelation) of sacral texts (Bible, Holy Scriptures) is that all human participation in the formation of such scriptures is ruled out. Either they or portions of them are preexistent with the deity as a corollary of the preexistence of God’s Word, or they are placed directly on the lips of a prophet by the deity (Inspiration/Theopneusty). On the basis of Exod 24:12, which speaks of Moses’ reception of the “tablets of stone,” the totality of the written Torah is thought to have been communicate…


(383 words)

Author(s): Prenner, Karl
[German Version] A word, which consists of sounds (vowels and consonants), constitutes the smallest self-contained linguistic unit (Language) and can therefore be considered the prototype of human communication and human self-realization. As such it points beyond its mere function as an utterance: it also stands for the object it speaks of. The advanced civilizations of the ancient Near East preserved the identity of word and object (Akkad. amātu, Egyp. md.t, Heb. dābār). Associated with this identity is the notion of the efficacy of words in general, and in the re…

Scripture and Writing

(972 words)

Author(s): Prenner, Karl | Huizing, Klaas
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Writing as a sociocultural and political phenomenon is characterized by the expansion of writing skills within a culture. With the emergence of major writing systems (Paleography), the process of reducing communication to writing began, coupled with specific forms of communication. Also related were the profession of the scribe, scribal training, the development of writing materials, and libraries. From the outset, the agents of written material were scholarly circles, religious officials, priests, and scribes (soferim…


(2,517 words)

Author(s): Prenner, Karl | Willi-Plein, Ina | Mell, Ulrich | Köntgen, Ludger | Kranemann, Benedikt
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Practical Theology and Liturgy I. History of Religions Many magical and religio-cultic rituals are associated with rubbing, spreading, sprinkling, or dousing persons and objects with fats, oils, or salves, but also with special waters. In addition to the cosmetic and medical uses of salves, the various cultures and religious tradition…

Word of God

(7,795 words)

Author(s): Prenner, Karl | Levin, Christoph | Hahn, Ferdinand | Krötke, Wolf | Meyer-Blanck, Michael | Et al.
[German Version] See also Heavenly voice, Memra, Revelation. I. Religious Studies Humans experience messages from the deity or divine beings (Inspiration/Theopneusty, Revelation) in the form of speech. Formally we must distinguish (a) the word of the deity himself, as recorded in sacred scripture after a phase of oral transmission (Torah, Qurʾān, Vedas, Avesta); (b) words communicated by individuals specially chosen and called by God (the word that calls); (c) words spoken by elect individuals having a spe…