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Awlonya

(596 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Alb. Vlora, Valona, town in southern. Albania. (see arnawutluḳ ) Awlonya, usually called Valona, is today a town of about 10,000 inhabitants. It lies in the bay of the same name, and is some 2½ m. (4 km.) inland from the harbour. It played an important part in antiquity as Aulon (hence Avlona). Concerning its history in the Middle Ages, cf. Konst. Jireček, Valona im Mittelalter , in: Ludwig v. Thallcózy, Illyrisch-albanische Forschungen , i, Munich and Leipzig 1916, 168/87. In June 1417, the Ottoman armies entered the area of Valona, and occupi…

K̲h̲osrew

(396 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
Mollā , a famous Ottoman jurist, whose real name was Meḥmed b. Farāmurz b. ʿAlī. According to one statement he was of Turkoman (tribe of Warsaḳ) descent and born in the village of Ḳarg̲h̲i̊n (half way between Sīwās and Toḳat); according to others, however, he was of “Frankish” descent and the son of a “French” nobleman who had adopted Islām. According to Saʿd al-Dīn his father was of Romaic ( Rūm ) descent. K̲h̲osrew became a pupil of the famous disciple of Taftazānī, Burhān al-Dīn Ḥaydar of Herat (cf. Isl ., xi, 61 and Saʿd al-Dīn, Tād̲j̲ al-tawārīk̲h̲ , ii, 430), and …

Nassads

(241 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the common European form of the name given to the light wooden warships built in Nassau or Hohenau (Lower Austria), the “Nassauer” or “Hohenauer”, Magyar naszád , pl. naszádok , Slav, nasad , which were used on the Danube. They were usually manned by Serbian seamen who were called martalos [ q.v.] (from the Magyar martolóc , martalóz , lit. “robber”). According to a Florentine account, this Danube flotilla in 1475 consisted of 330 ships manned by 10,000 “nassadists” armed with lances, shields, crossbow or bow and arrow, more ¶ rarely with muskets. The larger ships had also cannon. …

Nūḥ b. Muṣṭafā

(252 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman theologian and translator, was born in Anatolia but migrated while still quite young to Cairo where he studied all branches of theology and attained a high reputation. He died there in 1070/1659. He wrote a series of theological treatises, some of which are detailed by Brockelmann, II2, 407-8, S II, 432. His most important work, however, is his free translation and edition of S̲h̲āhrastānī’s celebrated work on the sects, his Terd̲j̲eme-i Milal we-niḥal which he prepared at the suggestion of a prominent Cairo citizen named Yūsuf Efendi (cf. Brockelmann, I2, 551, S I, 763). It…

Aynabak̲h̲ti̊̊

(410 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Turkish name for Lepanto, or Naupaktos, in Greece. It is on the Gulf of Corinth, has a picturesque position, but is—these days—an impoverished small town, called Epaktos by the people and Lepanto by the Italians. It is surrounded by crumbling walls which date from the times of Venetian rule, and is dominated by a fortress. In the Middle Ages, Aynabak̲h̲ti̊ ruled over the Gulf of Corinth, and in 1407 it came under Venetian rule (cf. Vitt. Lazzarini, L’acquisto di Lepanto, 1407, in: Nuovo Archivio Veneto , XV (Venice 1898), 267-833; in 1483 it was unsuccessf…

Og̲h̲ul

(304 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Bosworth, C.E.
(t.), a word common to all Turkic languages (cf. W. Radloff, Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte , St. Petersburg 1888-1911, i/2, cols. 1015-16), found as early as Ork̲h̲on Turkic and meaning “offspring, child”, with a strong implication of “male child”, as opposed to ḳi̊z “girl” [ q.v.] (Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 83-4), original plural og̲h̲lan , still thus in Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , facs. ed. Atalay, iv, Dizini , 425-6; C. Brockelmann, Mitteltürkischer Wortschatz

ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a

(293 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman historian. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbdī Pas̲h̲a came from Anadolu Hisarī on the Bosporus, was educated in the Serāy, and finally attained the post of imperial privy secretary ( sirr kʿātibi ). In Muḥarram 1080/June 1669 he was promoted to the office of nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i with the rank of a vizier, and later was appointed ḳāʾim-maḳām of the capital. In April 1679 he became governor of Bosnia, next year again nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i, in March a so-called vizier of the cupola, in August 1684 governor of Baṣra (cf. Hammer-Purgstall, vi, 379). Deposed in 1686, he was in the next y…

Rāmī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(742 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman Grand Vizier and poet, was born in 1065 or 1066/1654 in Eyyūb, a suburb of Istanbul, the son of a certain Ḥasan Ag̲h̲a. He entered the chancellery of the Reʾīs Efendi as a probationer ( s̲h̲āgird ), and through the poet Yūsuf Nābī [ q.v.] received an appointment as maṣraf kātibi̊ , i.e. secretary for the expenditure of the palace. In 1095/1684 through the influence of his patron, the newly-appointed Ḳapudān Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, he became dīwān efendi , i.e. chancellor of the Admiralty. He took part in his chief’s journeys and camp…

Ḳasṭallanī

(283 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
( kestelī , kestellī ), muṣliḥ al-dīn muṣṭafā , Ottoman theologian and Ḥanafī jurist, d. 901/1495-6. He was a native of Kestel (Latin Castellum ), a village near Bursa, where later in his career he built a mosque; from this village comes his nisba of Kestel(l)ī or, more grandiloquently, Ḳasṭallānī. He studied at Bursa under the famous scholar K̲h̲iḍr Beg, mudarris at the Sulṭān madrasa there, and after concluding his legal and theological studies became himself a teacher in Mudurnu, in the Urud̲j̲ Pas̲h̲a madrasa at Dimetoḳa (Demotica), and then in one of Meḥemmed II’s newly-fo…

Merkez

(329 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muṣliḥ al-Dīn b. Muṣṭafā, the head of an Ottoman Ṣūfī order and saint. Merkez Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Mūsā b. Muṣṭāfā b. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ b. Had̲j̲dar belonged to the village of Ṣari̊ Maḥmūdlu in the Anatolian district of Lād̲h̲ikiyya. He was at first a pupil of the Mollā Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, son of Ḵh̲iḍr Beg [ q. v.], and later of the famous Ḵh̲alwatī S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Sünbül Sinān Efendi, founder of the Sünbüliyya, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatiyya, head of the monastery of Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭāfā Pas̲h̲a in Istanbul (see Bursali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir, ʿOt̲h̲mānli müʾellifleri , i, 78-9). When th…

Merzifūn

(709 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Bosworth, C.E.
, also Mārsiwān , modern Turkish spelling Merzifon, a town of north-central Anatolia, lying in lat. 40°52′ and long. 35°35′E. and at an altitude of 750 m./2.464 ft. It is situated on the southern slopes of the Tavşan Daği, with a rich and fertile plain, the Sulu Ova, on its south, where fruit, vines, nuts, opium poppies, etc. are cultivated, and with the towns of Çorum [see čorum ] at 69 km./42 miles to the south-west and of Amasya [ q.v. ] at 49 km./30 miles to the south-east. The town most probably occupies the site of the ancient Phazemon (Φαζημών) in the district of Phazemonitis…

Pečewī

(665 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm (982- ca. 1060/1574-ca. 1649-50), Ottoman historian. Pečewī was born in 982/1574 in Pécs in southwestern Hungary, whence his epithet Pečewī (or, alternatively, Pečuylu, from the Croatian ). His family had a long tradition of Ottoman military service. Both his great-grandfather Ḳara Dāwūd and his grandfather D̲j̲aʿfer Beg served as alay begi in Bosnia; his father (name unknown) took part in campaigns in Bosnia, and in ʿlrāḳ during the 1530s (Pečewī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , i, 87, 102-6, 436-7, ii, 433). Pečewī’s mother was a member of the Ṣoḳollu [ q.v.] family. At the age of 14, after…

ʿÖmer Efendi

(366 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman historian, according to popular tradition originally called Elkazović or Čaušević, who belonged to Bosna-Novi (Bosanski-Novi). Of his career we only know that he was acting as ḳāḍī in his native town when fierce fighting broke out on Bosnian soil between the Imperial troops and those of Ḥekīm-Og̲h̲lu ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a (1150/1737). ʿÖmer Efendi at this time wrote a vivid account of the happenings in Bosnia from the beginning of Muḥarram 1149/May 1736 to the end of D̲j̲umādā I 1152/end of March 1…

ʿAzmī-Zāde

(568 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
muṣtafā , Ottoman poet and stylist, as a poet known under the name of Ḥāletī. Born in the so-called laylat al-berāt in Istanbul on 15 S̲h̲aʿbān 977/23 Jan. 1570. He was the son of ʿAzmī-Efendi, who was the well-known and well-respected tutor of Murād IV as well as a poet, writer, and translator (died 990/1582). As a pupil of Saʿd al-Dīn [ q.v.] who became famous as a historian, he studied law, and to him he owed his special love for historical investigation. He became müderris at the madrasa of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī-Ḵh̲ātūn in Istanbul, but in 1011/1602-3 he was transferred to Damascus as a ¶ judge. Two ye…

Ḳoyun Baba

(235 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, lit “father of sheep”, a Turkish saint. He is thought to have been a contemporary of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektās̲h̲ [see bektās̲h̲iyya ] and is said to have received his name from the fact that he did not speak, but only bleated like a sheep five times a day at the periods for prayer. Sulṭān Bāyezīd II, called Walī , built a splendid tomb and dervish monastery on the site of his alleged grave at ʿOt̲h̲mānd̲j̲i̊ḳ (near Amasya, in Anatolia) which was one of the finest and richest in the Ottoman empire. Ewliyā Čelebi in his Travels ( Seyāḥet-nāme , ii, 180 ff.) describes very ful…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a Rāmī

(730 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier and poet, was born in 1065/1655 or 1066/1656 in Eyyūb, a suburb of Istanbul, the son of a certain Ḥasan Ag̲h̲a. He entered the chancellery of the Reʾīs Efendi as a probationer ( s̲h̲āgird ), and through the poet Yūsuf Nābī [ q.v.] received an appointment as maṣraf kātibi , i.e. secretary for the expenditure of the palace. In 1095/1684, through the influence of his patron, the newly appointed Ḳapudān pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, he became dīwān efendi, i.e. chancellor of the Admiralty. He took part in his chief’s journeys and campaigns (against Chios…

Sinān Pas̲h̲a, K̲h̲od̲j̲a

(1,834 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine | Babinger, Fr. | Dávid, G.
, the name of two Ottoman dignitaries. 1. The vizier, scholar and prose writer (845-91/1440-86). Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a was born probably in 845/1440, in Bursa, the son of K̲h̲i̊ḍr Beg b. Ḳāḍī D̲j̲elāl al-Dīn (d. 863/1459 [ q.v.]), the first Ottoman ḳāḍī of Istanbul. Through his mother, a daughter of Mollā Yegān (d. 878/1473), he was also descended from a second ʿulemāʾ family prominent in the early Ottoman period. After initial appointments as müderris in Edirne, he was promoted by Meḥemmed II to a teaching post at the Istanbul ṣaḥn-i themāniye [ q.v.], to be held jointly with that of k̲h̲…

Delvina

(783 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, former residence of an Ottoman sand̲j̲aḳ-bey in Albania. In Ottoman times Delvina (so in Turkish and Albanian; Gk. Δέλβινον, Délvinon) formed a sand̲j̲aḳ of the Rumelian governorship. It stands 770 ft. above sea level, about 10½ miles from the shores of the Ionian sea, and consists of one single bazar street set in the midst of olive, lemon and pomegranate trees, surmounted by the ruins of an old, perhaps Byzantine, stronghold. The inhabitants numbered about 3000 before 1940, of whom two-thirds…

Niyāzī

(843 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, an Ottoman poet and mystic. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Meḥmed known as Miṣrī Efendi, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Miṣrī, whose mak̲h̲laṣ was Niyāzī, came from Aspūzī, the former summer capital of Malaṭya (cf. Ewliyā Čelebi, iv, 15; von Moltke, Reisebriefe , 349), where his father was a Naḳs̲h̲bandī dervish. Niyāzī was born in 1027/1617-18. The statement occasionally found that Sog̲h̲anli̊ was his birthplace is not correct. His father instructed him in the teaching of the order, then he went in 1048/1638 to Diyārbakr, later to Mārdīn where he studied for three years and finally to Cai…

Piyāle Pas̲h̲a

(966 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman Grand Admiral, came according to St. Gerlach, Tage-Buch (Frankfurt a/M. 1674, 448), from Tolna in Hungary and is said to have been the son of a shoemaker, probably of Croat origin. Almost all contemporary records mention his Croat blood (cf. the third series of the Relazioni degli ambasciatori Veneti al Senato , ed. E. Albèri, Florence 1844-5, and esp. iii/2, 243: di nazione croato, vicino ai confini d’Ungheria; 357: di nazione croato; iii/3, 294: di nazione unghero; 418). Following the custom of the time, his father was later given the name of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān an…
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