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Onomarchus

(241 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαρχος/ Onómarchos, Phocian Ὀνύμαρχος/ Onýmarchos; FdD III,5, no. 23, col. II,42). Politician and military commander of the Phocian League (see Phocis), son of Euthycrates (Aristot. Pol. 5,4,1304 a 12). In 371 BC, O. defended Elatea [1] against the Thebans (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,38,1). Following the death of Philomelus in 355 (according to Diod. Sic. 16,56,5; 61,2, the latter and O. were brothers, but cf. [1. 19f.]), he became stratēgós autokrátōr of the Phocians, brutally putting down his rivals (Diod. Sic. 16,33,1-3) [2. 131]. O. energeticall…

Scopadae

(169 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Σκοπάδαι; Skopádai). Noble family from Crannon, which, beside the Aleuadae, was one of the leading clans of Thessaly in the 6th century BC. On account of their wealth from cattle and pasturing (cf. Theoc. 16,36-39) the S. were from time to time at the lead of the Thessalian League (Tagos). As in the case of Aleuas, constitutive measures in establishing the organisation of the Thessalian army are also ascribed to their mythical/historical founder, Scopas I, (cf. Xen. Hell. 6,1,19; …

Ptoeodorus

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Πτωιόδωρος/ Ptōiódōros, MSS Πτοιόδωρος/ Ptoiódōros). [German version] [1] Exiled Theban, c. 425/4 BC Exiled Theban; c. 425/4 BC, ringleader of a combined Athenian action against Siphae and Delium [1] intended to topple the oligarchic government of the Boeotian League (Thuc. 4,76,2 f.). The undertaking failed miserably. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R.J. Buck, Boiotia and the Boiotian League, 432-371 B.C., 1994, 16-18. [German version] [2] Politician from Megara, c. 350 BC Influential and wealthy politician from Megara; came into contact c. 360 BC with the banished Dio…

Nicophemus

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νικόφημος/ Nikóphēmos). Athenian, confidant of Conon [1], who in 395/4 BC made him commander of the Persian fleet (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4; Hell. Oxy. 15). In 393 he commanded a force occupying Cythera (Xen. Hell. 4,8,8) [1. 82, 126]. When he returned to Cyprus, he led a (failed) mission in aid of Evagoras [1] (389 BC) together with his son Aristophanes [1]. N. was then summarily condemned and executed at Athens, and his fortune was confiscated (Lys. 19,7; 11f.; 35f.; 42-44). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. Funke, Homonoia und Arche, 1980. PA 11066.

Oenobius

(54 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ᾨνόβιος/ Ōinóbios). Athenian from the dḗmos of Decelea. In the year 410/409 B.C. he was in Thrace as a strategos (IG I3 101, l. 47). O. is probably identical to the person who requested  in the year 404/3 that Thucydides be recalled (Paus. 1,23,9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 2191  PA 11357.

Learchus

(81 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λέαρχος; Léarchos). Son of Callimachus, Athenian. L. was at the court of Sitalces in 430 BC when Peloponnesian envoys arrived who were meant to persuade the Thracian king to break with Athens. Through Prince Sadocus, who had been given Attic citizenship shortly before this, L. managed to have them arrested, and they were deported to Athens and executed (Thuc. 2,67). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 1778 Traill, PAA, 602725 S. Hornblower, A Commentary on Thucydides, 1, 1991, 350f.

Phoebidas

(201 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Φοιβίδας/ Phoibídas). Spartan general, probably related by marriage to the house of Agesilaus [2] [1. 147f.]. In 382 BC, supposed to bring new troops to his brother Eudamidas [1], who was fighting Olynthus, on the way he marched to Thebes and in a surprise attack captured the Cadmeia, the fortress of Thebes, during the Thesmophoria (Xen. Hell.  5,2,25-36;  Diod. Sic. 15,20,1f.; Plut. Pelopidas 5; Plut. Agesilaus 23f.; Plut.  Mor. 576a-577d; Androtion FGrH 324 F 50). Xenophon (Xen.…

Cleopompus

(71 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Κλεόπομπος; Kleópompos). Son of Cleinias, Athenian, as stratēgós in 431/0 BC led a fleet of 30 triremes against Opuntian Locris and conquered Thronium (Thuc. 2.26; Diod. Sic. 12.44.1). In the following year, jointly with  Hagnon [1] he commanded the second expeditionary corps to win back Potidaea (Thuc. 2.58.1f.).  Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin 1676 C. W. Fornara, The Athenian Board of Generals from 501 to 404, 1971, 54f.

Theocrines

(60 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Θεοκρίνης; Theokrínēs). Athenian from the Hybadae deme (IG II/III2 2,2, 2409, 44 f.), a notorious sykophántēs (cf. Dem. Or. 18,313), who made a living from threats of court action and extortion. A forensic speech by Epichares from 342 BC ([Dem.] Or. 58) is directed against him. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Traill, PAA, 508320  Schäfer, vol. 4 (appendices), 266-280.

Koine Eirene

(572 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κοινὴ εἰρήνη; koinḕ eirḗnē). ‘Common peace’, multilateral peace concept of the 4th cent. BC. Characteristics are demands for the autonomy ( autonomía ) of the polis as well as compulsoriness for all, that is, not only for the warring Greek states [1. XVI]. In contemporary sources, the term is attested only rarely, first in Andocides (3,17; 34, in the year 392/1), who advocated a κ.ε. πᾶσι τοῖς Ἕλλησι (‘Koine Eirene for all Greeks’). One such Koine Eirene (KE) was sworn to in the year 386 in Sparta after negoti…

Telliads

(26 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τελλιάδαι; Telliádai). Family of seers in Elis (Hdt. 9,37). Hegesistratus [2] and Tellias are known by name (Hdt. 8,27,3-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Keryx

(287 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κῆρυξ/ kêryx, ‘crier’, herald). Sometimes synonymous with ἄγγελος ( ángelos) or πρεσβευτής ( presbeutḗs), without any strict distinction. The functions of the kêryx encompass political, diplomatic, judicial and ritual matters (cf. Poll. 8,103). In the Homeric age kḗrykes appear as heralds of basileús as well as servers in sacrificial rites (Hom. Il. 1,320-336; 3,116-120). The high regard in which they were held apparently dates back to the Mycenaean age (Linear B ka-ru-ke) [1; 2]. With the development of the polis authorities, the kêryx increasingly took on th…

Myscon

(43 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μύσκων/ Mýskōn). Syracusan, son of Menecrates; after the banishment of Hermocrates [1] in 410 BC, he took over command of the Syracusan fleet off Miletus along with two other strategoi (Thuc. 8,85,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,29; Peloponnesian War). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Pasicles

(171 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Πασικλῆς; Pasiklês). [German version] [1] Athenian from the deme of Acharnae (4th cent. BC) Athenian of the deme Acharnae, son of the banker Pasion [2], born in 380 BC. After the death of his father in 370 the wealth was divided in accord with the will between P. and his elder brother Apollodorus [1], and a Phormion appointed P.'s guardian (Dem. Or. 36,8-10). On his majority in 362 P. took over the banking house (ibid. 36,11; 37) and between 362 and 360 apparently took part in his brother's costly trierarchi…

Hippocleides

(115 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἱπποκλείδης; Hippokleídēs). Son of Teisander, Athenian from the family of the Philaids ( Philaidai). Around 575 BC, he sought the hand in marriage of  Agariste [1], daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, but was unsuccessful despite good prospects, losing out to the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonidae)  Megacles due to a social affront (Hdt. 6,126-130; Ath. 14,628d) [1]. During the archonship of H., the Panathenaea were established, probably in 566/5 BC [2. 57f.] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 2; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 22). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 E. Stein-Hölkesk…

Lysagoras

(74 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυσαγόρας; Lysagóras) from Paros, son of Teisias. According to Herodotus (6,133,1), the original motive for the Paros expedition by Militiades in 489 BC was personal grudge against L., who supposedly had previously slandered Militiades to the Persian commander Hydarnes [2]. A source hostile to Militiades is presumably the basis for the report [1]. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 K. H. Kinzl, Miltiades' Parosexpedition in der Geschichtsschreibung, in: Hermes 104, 1976, 280-307.

Timasion

(64 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τιμασίων; Timasíōn) from Dardanus in the Troas. After the battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC and the murder of Clearchus [2] elected a leader of the Greek mercenaries of the army of the young Cyrus [3]; equestrian leader in the March of the Ten Thousand against Artaxerxes [2] (Xen. An. 3,1,47 et passim). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xen. An., 1995, 157 f.

Miltas

(70 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μίλτας; Míltas). Thessalian, seer and occasional member of the Platonic academy ( Akadḗmeia ); in 357 BC he took part in the campaign of Dion [I 1] against Dionysius [2], and interpreted the lunar eclipse (August 8) which preceded departure as a portent of the fall of Dionysius (Plut. Dion 22,6f.; 24,2-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography K. Trampedach, Platon, die Akademie und die zeitgenössische Politik, 1994, 111.

Nicomenes

(105 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Νικομένης; Nikoménēs). [German version] [1] Democrat accused by Agoratus, 404 BC Athenian, one of the democrats who were denounced by Agoratus in 404 BC and were executed because of their opposition to the peace treaty with Sparta negotiated by Theramenes (Lys. 13,23; 38). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian, around 400 BC Athenian, at whose request the citizenship law introduced by Aristophon [2] was modified to the effect that it was only applicable to those children who were born after the archonship of Eucleides (403/2 BC) (sch…

Oxythemis

(75 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀξύθεμις/ Oxýthemis) from Larisa. Close confidant of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes (Phylarchus FGrH 81 F 12), awarded citizenship and cultic honours after the liberation of Athens from Macedonian occupation in 307 BC (IG II2 558; cf. Demochares FGrH 75 F 1). In 289 he led negotiations for Demetrius with Agathocles [2] (Diod. 21,15f.). Antigonus [2] had him executed (Ath. 578b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Ch. Habicht, Gottmenschentum und griechische Städte, 1956, 55-58  Id., Athen, 1995, 87.
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