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Keryx

(287 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κῆρυξ/ kêryx, ‘crier’, herald). Sometimes synonymous with ἄγγελος ( ángelos) or πρεσβευτής ( presbeutḗs), without any strict distinction. The functions of the kêryx encompass political, diplomatic, judicial and ritual matters (cf. Poll. 8,103). In the Homeric age kḗrykes appear as heralds of basileús as well as servers in sacrificial rites (Hom. Il. 1,320-336; 3,116-120). The high regard in which they were held apparently dates back to the Mycenaean age (Linear B ka-ru-ke) [1; 2]. With the development of the polis authorities, the kêryx increasingly took on th…

Myscon

(43 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μύσκων/ Mýskōn). Syracusan, son of Menecrates; after the banishment of Hermocrates [1] in 410 BC, he took over command of the Syracusan fleet off Miletus along with two other strategoi (Thuc. 8,85,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,29; Peloponnesian War). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Pasicles

(171 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Πασικλῆς; Pasiklês). [German version] [1] Athenian from the deme of Acharnae (4th cent. BC) Athenian of the deme Acharnae, son of the banker Pasion [2], born in 380 BC. After the death of his father in 370 the wealth was divided in accord with the will between P. and his elder brother Apollodorus [1], and a Phormion appointed P.'s guardian (Dem. Or. 36,8-10). On his majority in 362 P. took over the banking house (ibid. 36,11; 37) and between 362 and 360 apparently took part in his brother's costly trierarchi…

Timasion

(64 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τιμασίων; Timasíōn) from Dardanus in the Troas. After the battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC and the murder of Clearchus [2] elected a leader of the Greek mercenaries of the army of the young Cyrus [3]; equestrian leader in the March of the Ten Thousand against Artaxerxes [2] (Xen. An. 3,1,47 et passim). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xen. An., 1995, 157 f.

Miltas

(70 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μίλτας; Míltas). Thessalian, seer and occasional member of the Platonic academy ( Akadḗmeia ); in 357 BC he took part in the campaign of Dion [I 1] against Dionysius [2], and interpreted the lunar eclipse (August 8) which preceded departure as a portent of the fall of Dionysius (Plut. Dion 22,6f.; 24,2-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography K. Trampedach, Platon, die Akademie und die zeitgenössische Politik, 1994, 111.

Nicomenes

(105 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Νικομένης; Nikoménēs). [German version] [1] Democrat accused by Agoratus, 404 BC Athenian, one of the democrats who were denounced by Agoratus in 404 BC and were executed because of their opposition to the peace treaty with Sparta negotiated by Theramenes (Lys. 13,23; 38). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian, around 400 BC Athenian, at whose request the citizenship law introduced by Aristophon [2] was modified to the effect that it was only applicable to those children who were born after the archonship of Eucleides (403/2 BC) (sch…

Oxythemis

(75 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀξύθεμις/ Oxýthemis) from Larisa. Close confidant of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes (Phylarchus FGrH 81 F 12), awarded citizenship and cultic honours after the liberation of Athens from Macedonian occupation in 307 BC (IG II2 558; cf. Demochares FGrH 75 F 1). In 289 he led negotiations for Demetrius with Agathocles [2] (Diod. 21,15f.). Antigonus [2] had him executed (Ath. 578b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Ch. Habicht, Gottmenschentum und griechische Städte, 1956, 55-58  Id., Athen, 1995, 87.

Phyllidas

(98 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Φυλλίδας/ Phyllídas, also Φιλλίδας/ Phillídas). Theban, in 379 BC scribe of the polemarch Archias [3]. He established contact with exiled Thebans around Melon and Pelopidas in Athens and made the necessary preparations for an attempt on Archias' life. Xenophon (Xen. Hell. 5,4,2-9) also ascribes to P. the murder of Leontiades [2] (but see Plut. Pelopidas 7-11; Plut. Mor. 577b-d; 588b; 594d; 596; 598). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R. J. Buck, Boiotia and the Boiotian League, 1994, 72-78  J. DeVoto, The Liberation of Thebes in 379/8 BC, in: R.F. Sutton (ed.), Stu…

Iphicrates

(278 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἰφικράτης; Iphikrátēs). Son of Timotheus, an Athenian from Rhamnous, and an important general in the first half of the 4th cent. BC. In the Corinthian War, I. achieved prominence by creating a powerful corps of peltasts with which he operated in the Peloponnese between 393 and 390 and annihilated a Spartan   mora near Corinth (Xen. Hell. 4,5,11-18; Diod. Sic. 14,91,2; 15,44; Nep. Iphicrates 1). As commander he was victorious at the Hellespont against  Anaxibius in 389 BC (Xen. Hell. 4,8,34-39). Following the  Ki…

Onomacles

(98 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνομακλῆς/ Onomaklês). Athenian politician. As strategos, he led a squadron to Samos in 412/1 BC and against Miletus (Thuc. 8,25,1; 30,2). After the oligarchic coup, he belonged to the council of 400 ( tetrakósioi ), but in 411 was indicted in an eisangelía trial and escaped to avoid conviction (Plut. Mor. 833f) [1. 385]. O. later returned to Athens and belonged to the thirty ( triákonta ; Xen. Hell. 2,3,2). Lysias ( Perí tēs Onomakléous thygatrós, fr. 104 Thalheim) mentioned his daughter. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 B. Bleckmann, Athens Weg in die Niederl…

Lacedaemonius

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λακεδαιμόνιος; Lakedaimónios). Athenian, son of Cimon [2] and Isodice (Plut. Cimon 16). He served as hípparchos around 445 BC (IG I3 511; [1. 45-49]). In the summer of 433 L., as stratēgós, was sent to Corcyra with ten ships to assist the allied island in its conflict with Corinth (Thuc. 1,45,2f.; Plut. Pericles 29; ML 61). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. R. Bugh, The Horsemen of Athens, 1988. Davies 8429, XIII G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War, 31989, 76f. Traill, PAA 600810.

Polyanthes

(79 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πολυάνθης/ Polyánthēs) from Corinth commanded a squadron in a sea battle off the Achaean coast in 413 BC (Thuc. 7,34,2). Bribed by  Timocrates with Persian gold in 395, P. and Timolaus steered an anti-Spartan and probably also democratic course, which resulted in the Corinthian League (StV 225) (Xen. Hell. 3,5,1; Paus. 3,9,8; Hell. Oxy. 2,3). Corinthus (II B); Peloponnesian War (with map) Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984  H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis, 1985, 83.

Leobotes

(65 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] see Labotas see Labotas Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian, 5th cent. BC (Λεωβώτης; Leōbṓtēs). Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family; around 467/6 BC he issued an eisangelia against the already banished Themistocles ( Eisangelia ) because of high treason and achieved his conviction (Plut. Themistocles 23; Plut. Mor. 605E; Craterus FGrH 342 F 11). Davies 9688,XII. Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Paches

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πάχης/ Páchēs). Athenian, son of Epicurus, sent in late autumn 428 BC as a  stratēgós with 1000 hoplites against the disloyal city of Mytilene, which he captured after several months of siege (Thuc. 3,18,3-3,28; Diod. Sic. 12,55,5-10). After operations off the Ionian coast, he also subjugated Antissa, Pyrrha and Eresus (Thuc. 3,28,3; 35,1-2), all on Lesbos [1. 171f.]. On his return, P. was indicted in Athens (at the instigation of Cleon [1]). (The accusation, expressed in Anth. Pal. 7,614, of …

Onetor

(113 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνήτωρ/ Onḗtōr). Respected Athenian, eldest son of Philonides, from the deme of Melite, born c. 415 BC. Isocrates (Isoc. Or. 15,93) praises the financial expenditures of his pupil O. for the polis (especially liturgies; Heliodorus FGrH 373 F6 mentions a choragic votive offering). According to Demosthenes (Dem. Or. 30,10), his wealth amounted to more than 30 talents. His sister's second husband was Aphobus, which is why O. became involved in the court case concerning Demosthenes' [2] guardians proceedings and …

Malecidas

(90 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μαλεκίδας/ Malekídas, also Μαλκίτης/ Malkítēs). Theban, Boeotarch during the Theban hegemony (IG VII 2408), who, after the death of Pelopidas in 364 BC, led an army of 7,000 hoplites and 700 cavalry, together with Diogeiton, against Alexander [15] of Pherae. Alexander was forced to relinquish his control over the Thessalian cities and obliged to supply troops (Plut. Pel. 35). M. is apparently identical with the Boeotarch Malgis, mentioned by Pausanias (9,13,6) in connection with the Battle of Leuctra. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Heg…

Hestiodorus

(44 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἑστιόδωρος; Hestiódōros). Son of Aristoclides, Athenian strategos, besieged Potidaea from 432/1 BC accepting the city's capitulation in winter 430/29 (Thuc. 2,70,1). He died shortly afterwards in the battle for Spartolus (Thuc. 2,79). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 1381 Traill, PAA 423910.

Pelopidas

(407 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πελοπίδας; Pelopídas). Distinguished Theban, son of Hippocles, after to Epaminondas the outstanding commander and politician of the Boeotian League during the Theban hegemony (Boeotia, Boeotians with map). In 382 BC, P. was a young man: his year of birth was therefore probably around 410. As a supporter of the democratic faction of Ismenias [1], he fled to Athens after the Spartan occupation of the Kadmeia (Thebes), from where he apparently organized the resistance to the regime of Leontiades [2] (Plut. Pe…

Hippocleides

(115 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἱπποκλείδης; Hippokleídēs). Son of Teisander, Athenian from the family of the Philaids ( Philaidai). Around 575 BC, he sought the hand in marriage of  Agariste [1], daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, but was unsuccessful despite good prospects, losing out to the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonidae)  Megacles due to a social affront (Hdt. 6,126-130; Ath. 14,628d) [1]. During the archonship of H., the Panathenaea were established, probably in 566/5 BC [2. 57f.] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 2; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 22). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 E. Stein-Hölkesk…

Lysagoras

(74 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυσαγόρας; Lysagóras) from Paros, son of Teisias. According to Herodotus (6,133,1), the original motive for the Paros expedition by Militiades in 489 BC was personal grudge against L., who supposedly had previously slandered Militiades to the Persian commander Hydarnes [2]. A source hostile to Militiades is presumably the basis for the report [1]. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 K. H. Kinzl, Miltiades' Parosexpedition in der Geschichtsschreibung, in: Hermes 104, 1976, 280-307.
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