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Scopadae

(169 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Σκοπάδαι; Skopádai). Noble family from Crannon, which, beside the Aleuadae, was one of the leading clans of Thessaly in the 6th century BC. On account of their wealth from cattle and pasturing (cf. Theoc. 16,36-39) the S. were from time to time at the lead of the Thessalian League (Tagos). As in the case of Aleuas, constitutive measures in establishing the organisation of the Thessalian army are also ascribed to their mythical/historical founder, Scopas I, (cf. Xen. Hell. 6,1,19; …

Ptoeodorus

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Πτωιόδωρος/ Ptōiódōros, MSS Πτοιόδωρος/ Ptoiódōros). [German version] [1] Exiled Theban, c. 425/4 BC Exiled Theban; c. 425/4 BC, ringleader of a combined Athenian action against Siphae and Delium [1] intended to topple the oligarchic government of the Boeotian League (Thuc. 4,76,2 f.). The undertaking failed miserably. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R.J. Buck, Boiotia and the Boiotian League, 432-371 B.C., 1994, 16-18. [German version] [2] Politician from Megara, c. 350 BC Influential and wealthy politician from Megara; came into contact c. 360 BC with the banished Dio…

Nicophemus

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νικόφημος/ Nikóphēmos). Athenian, confidant of Conon [1], who in 395/4 BC made him commander of the Persian fleet (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4; Hell. Oxy. 15). In 393 he commanded a force occupying Cythera (Xen. Hell. 4,8,8) [1. 82, 126]. When he returned to Cyprus, he led a (failed) mission in aid of Evagoras [1] (389 BC) together with his son Aristophanes [1]. N. was then summarily condemned and executed at Athens, and his fortune was confiscated (Lys. 19,7; 11f.; 35f.; 42-44). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. Funke, Homonoia und Arche, 1980. PA 11066.

Koine Eirene

(572 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κοινὴ εἰρήνη; koinḕ eirḗnē). ‘Common peace’, multilateral peace concept of the 4th cent. BC. Characteristics are demands for the autonomy ( autonomía ) of the polis as well as compulsoriness for all, that is, not only for the warring Greek states [1. XVI]. In contemporary sources, the term is attested only rarely, first in Andocides (3,17; 34, in the year 392/1), who advocated a κ.ε. πᾶσι τοῖς Ἕλλησι (‘Koine Eirene for all Greeks’). One such Koine Eirene (KE) was sworn to in the year 386 in Sparta after negoti…

Telliads

(26 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τελλιάδαι; Telliádai). Family of seers in Elis (Hdt. 9,37). Hegesistratus [2] and Tellias are known by name (Hdt. 8,27,3-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Keryx

(287 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κῆρυξ/ kêryx, ‘crier’, herald). Sometimes synonymous with ἄγγελος ( ángelos) or πρεσβευτής ( presbeutḗs), without any strict distinction. The functions of the kêryx encompass political, diplomatic, judicial and ritual matters (cf. Poll. 8,103). In the Homeric age kḗrykes appear as heralds of basileús as well as servers in sacrificial rites (Hom. Il. 1,320-336; 3,116-120). The high regard in which they were held apparently dates back to the Mycenaean age (Linear B ka-ru-ke) [1; 2]. With the development of the polis authorities, the kêryx increasingly took on th…

Myscon

(43 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μύσκων/ Mýskōn). Syracusan, son of Menecrates; after the banishment of Hermocrates [1] in 410 BC, he took over command of the Syracusan fleet off Miletus along with two other strategoi (Thuc. 8,85,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,29; Peloponnesian War). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Paches

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πάχης/ Páchēs). Athenian, son of Epicurus, sent in late autumn 428 BC as a  stratēgós with 1000 hoplites against the disloyal city of Mytilene, which he captured after several months of siege (Thuc. 3,18,3-3,28; Diod. Sic. 12,55,5-10). After operations off the Ionian coast, he also subjugated Antissa, Pyrrha and Eresus (Thuc. 3,28,3; 35,1-2), all on Lesbos [1. 171f.]. On his return, P. was indicted in Athens (at the instigation of Cleon [1]). (The accusation, expressed in Anth. Pal. 7,614, of …

Onetor

(113 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνήτωρ/ Onḗtōr). Respected Athenian, eldest son of Philonides, from the deme of Melite, born c. 415 BC. Isocrates (Isoc. Or. 15,93) praises the financial expenditures of his pupil O. for the polis (especially liturgies; Heliodorus FGrH 373 F6 mentions a choragic votive offering). According to Demosthenes (Dem. Or. 30,10), his wealth amounted to more than 30 talents. His sister's second husband was Aphobus, which is why O. became involved in the court case concerning Demosthenes' [2] guardians proceedings and …

Malecidas

(90 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μαλεκίδας/ Malekídas, also Μαλκίτης/ Malkítēs). Theban, Boeotarch during the Theban hegemony (IG VII 2408), who, after the death of Pelopidas in 364 BC, led an army of 7,000 hoplites and 700 cavalry, together with Diogeiton, against Alexander [15] of Pherae. Alexander was forced to relinquish his control over the Thessalian cities and obliged to supply troops (Plut. Pel. 35). M. is apparently identical with the Boeotarch Malgis, mentioned by Pausanias (9,13,6) in connection with the Battle of Leuctra. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Heg…

Hestiodorus

(44 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἑστιόδωρος; Hestiódōros). Son of Aristoclides, Athenian strategos, besieged Potidaea from 432/1 BC accepting the city's capitulation in winter 430/29 (Thuc. 2,70,1). He died shortly afterwards in the battle for Spartolus (Thuc. 2,79). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 1381 Traill, PAA 423910.

Pelopidas

(407 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πελοπίδας; Pelopídas). Distinguished Theban, son of Hippocles, after to Epaminondas the outstanding commander and politician of the Boeotian League during the Theban hegemony (Boeotia, Boeotians with map). In 382 BC, P. was a young man: his year of birth was therefore probably around 410. As a supporter of the democratic faction of Ismenias [1], he fled to Athens after the Spartan occupation of the Kadmeia (Thebes), from where he apparently organized the resistance to the regime of Leontiades [2] (Plut. Pe…

Hippocleides

(115 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἱπποκλείδης; Hippokleídēs). Son of Teisander, Athenian from the family of the Philaids ( Philaidai). Around 575 BC, he sought the hand in marriage of  Agariste [1], daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, but was unsuccessful despite good prospects, losing out to the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonidae)  Megacles due to a social affront (Hdt. 6,126-130; Ath. 14,628d) [1]. During the archonship of H., the Panathenaea were established, probably in 566/5 BC [2. 57f.] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 2; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 22). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 E. Stein-Hölkesk…

Lysagoras

(74 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυσαγόρας; Lysagóras) from Paros, son of Teisias. According to Herodotus (6,133,1), the original motive for the Paros expedition by Militiades in 489 BC was personal grudge against L., who supposedly had previously slandered Militiades to the Persian commander Hydarnes [2]. A source hostile to Militiades is presumably the basis for the report [1]. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 K. H. Kinzl, Miltiades' Parosexpedition in der Geschichtsschreibung, in: Hermes 104, 1976, 280-307.

Timasion

(64 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τιμασίων; Timasíōn) from Dardanus in the Troas. After the battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC and the murder of Clearchus [2] elected a leader of the Greek mercenaries of the army of the young Cyrus [3]; equestrian leader in the March of the Ten Thousand against Artaxerxes [2] (Xen. An. 3,1,47 et passim). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xen. An., 1995, 157 f.

Miltas

(70 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μίλτας; Míltas). Thessalian, seer and occasional member of the Platonic academy ( Akadḗmeia ); in 357 BC he took part in the campaign of Dion [I 1] against Dionysius [2], and interpreted the lunar eclipse (August 8) which preceded departure as a portent of the fall of Dionysius (Plut. Dion 22,6f.; 24,2-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography K. Trampedach, Platon, die Akademie und die zeitgenössische Politik, 1994, 111.

Cleophantus

(273 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κλεόφαντος; Kleóphantos). [German version] [1] Son of Themistocles and Archippe Son of  Themistocles and Archippe (Plut. Themistocles 32; Pl. Men. 93d-e), was honoured with civic rights in Lampsacus (ATL III,111-3). Davies 6669,VI. Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Greek physician, 3rd cent. BC Greek doctor, active c. 270-250 BC, brother of  Erasistratus, pupil of  Chrysippus [3] of Cnidus and founder of a medical school (Gal., 17A 603 K.). He wrote a paper on the medical prescription of wine, which provided the model for a similar…

Mys

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μῦς; Mỹs). [German version] [1] Karian from Euromos, around 480 BC Carian from Euromus, who visited several oracle shrines in Boeotia and Phocis in 480/479 BC on behalf of Mardonius [1]. In the Ptoion mountains the oracle replied to him in the Carian language (Hdt. 8,133-135; Paus. 9,23,6; cf. Plut. Mor. 412b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Toreutic sculptor and and fellow artist of Phidias Toreutic sculptor in metal and fellow artist of Phidias. M. executed the shield reliefs on Phidias’s ‘Athena Promachos with a representation of the fight betwe…

Pasion

(382 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Πασίων/ Pasíōn). [German version] [1] Greek mercenary commander (late 5th cent. BC) P. of Megara led a mercenary unit to Cyrus [3] in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,2,3), but later, in Myriandrus and under unexplained circumstances, he broke away from the army of Cyrus, together with the mercenary leader Xenias  (ibid. 1,4,6-9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Freedman from Athens, 4th cent. BC The example of P. provides a good insight in the business of an Athenian trapezítēs . Originally, P. was the slave of Antisthenes and Archestratus; after his …

Teledamus

(185 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Son of Odysseus and Calypso (Τηλέδαμος; Tēlédamos). According to Eust. on Hom. Od. 16,118, the author of the Tēlegonía names a son of Odysseus and Calypso“Telegonus or Teledamus”, which would make him the brother of Nausithous [2] and Nausinous. The passage is evidently corrupt, since elsewhere Telegonus is Odysseus' son with Circe. For a discussion of conjectures: [1]. Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography 1 K. Scherling, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 313 f. [German version] [2] Son of Agamemnon and Cassandra (Paus.: Τελέδαμος/ Telédamos, schol. Hom. Od.: Τελέδημος/ Telé…
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