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History

(1,259 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael
Writing Pentecostal history is no easy task, because historiographical narratives are inevitably linked to how Pentecostalism is defined (see Definition). In most of academic discourse, Pentecostalism tends to be seen as either the final outcome of a series of revivals in the beginning of the twentieth century, or as a global discourse in today's world with possibly more recent origins. The latter definiti…
Date: 2021-03-09

Religionen

(5,347 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael
01. AusgangslageDie Behandlung des Themas ›Religion‹ (= R.) und ›Religionen‹ (= Rn.) hat zu bedenken, dass sich der heutige Gebrauch des Begriffs grundsätzlich von dem in der Nz. unterscheidet und sich erst seit der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jh.s durchgesetzt hat. In der Forschung wird von einer Neukonzeption ›in einer gravierenden Zäsur‹ [28. Bd. 4, 12] oder von einer ›monumentale[n] Transition‹ [33. 58] gesprochen. Über diese geschichtliche Konstellation besteht heute weitgehend Einigkeit. Deshalb wird im Folgenden gefragt, ob – und wenn ja, wie – sich chri…
Date: 2019-11-19

India

(1,074 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael
In a country shaped by many different religious traditions, Indian Christianity accounts for about 2 percent of the population. Nevertheless, in South India, where nearly two thirds of India’s Christians live, Christianity represents a relatively strong minority. Here, the portion of Pentecostalism is also relatively high with a growing trend. Though reliable statistics are not available, pentecostal churches and ministries gained a visible presence within the south Indian church landscape by th…
Date: 2021-03-09

Definitions

(1,252 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael
The question of how the Pentecostal movement is to be adequately defined and delimited has remained unresolved and contested (Anderson et al. 2010). The debate may have ebbed away somewhat in recent years, but increasing scholarly attention to global Pentecostalism makes the problem even more virulent. Current academic research on global Pentecostalism tends to favour a broad and vague understanding of its subject matter. At first glance, such an all-inclusive definition seems to be attractive t…
Date: 2021-03-09

Phenomenology of Religion

(1,708 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel | Bergunder, Michael
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The phenomenology of religion is the study of manifestations of religious phenomena (Phenomenon, Phenomenology), or their comparative morphology. The prime task is the recording of elements constituting religion, for example sacred objects, sacred sites, sacred times, actions, holy scriptur…

Spiritism

(479 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael
[German Version] Spiritism (or spiritualism) denotes a movement whose adherents believe in the empiri…

Pentecostalism/Charismatic Movements

(5,310 words)

Author(s): Frenschkowski, Marco | Robins, Roger G. | Gerloff, Roswith | Bergunder, Michael
[German Version] I. Church History 1. On Jan 2, 1901, the Bethel Bible School in Topeka, Kansas, headed by C.F. Parham, experienced pneumatic phenomena, which were interpreted as missionary preparation and “baptism in the Spirit” (as in Acts 2). From 1906 to 1913, the “Azusa Street Revival” in Los Angeles, led by Pastor W.J. Seymour, the son of a black slave, became the birthplace of the modern Pentecostal movement. “Pentecostal churches” sprang up almost overnight (see II, 1 below). In 2002 some 20% …

Saints/Veneration of the Saints

(4,185 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Köpf, Ulrich | Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Ivanov, Vladimir | Barth, Hans-Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In comparative religious studies, veneration of saints

Rhenius, Karl Theophil Ewald

(174 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael
[German Version] (1790, Graudenz [Grudziądz, Poland] – 1838, Palayamkottai, India). After attending J. Jänicke’s mission school in Berlin, Rhenius was ordained as a Lutheran and moved to England; in 1814 he traveled to Madras (Chennai) in service of the Church Missionary Society (CMS). In 1820 he moved to Palayamkottai, with responsibility for the Tirunelveli district. The CMS’s increasing church-centeredness (esp. after 1833) brought the Pietistic Lutheran missionary into conflict with episcopal …

Merit

(4,227 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Avemarie, Friedrich | Heiligenthal, Roman | Huxel, Kirsten | Sattler, Dorothea
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. History of Dogma – V. Dogmatics – VI. Ethics – VII. Ecumenics

Secularization

(7,317 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Lehmann, Hartmut | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Mathisen, James A. | de Wall, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In the 1960s, religious studies began to discuss the continuing decline of religious commitment in Europe intensively. In particular the writings of Bryan Wilson ( Religion in a Secular Society, 1966) and Peter L. Berger ( The Sacred Canopy, 1967), drawing on the ideas of M. Weber, É. Durkheim, and others led to formulation of a so-called theory of secularization, where secularization denotes a natural aspect of the process of modernization, in which the traditional religious legitimation of the world has increasingly lost…

Ringeltaube, Wilhelm Tobias

(81 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael
[German Version] (1770, Scheidelwitz [Szydlowice], Poland – went missing in 1816). Missionary of the London Missionary Society in South India. From 1806 to 1816, Ringeltaube worked mainly in Mayiladi in the far south of Travancore (now Kanniyakumari district), sometimes living like a sannyāsin in order to support the missionary work started there by an Indian Christian, Vedamanickam, among Nadars (Shanars) in the service of the London Missionary Society. Michael Bergunder Bibliography H. Grafe, A History of Christianity, 1990.

Jesus Christ

(19,624 words)

Author(s): Roloff, Jürgen | Pokorný, Petr | Köpf, Ulrich | Lathrop, Gordon W. | Krötke, Wolf | Et al.
[German Version] I. Name and Titles – II. Jesus Christ in the History of Christianity – III. Jesus Christ in Other Religions – IV. Jesus Christ in Jewish Perspective – V. Jesus Christ in Islamic Perspective – VI. Jesus Christ in Art I. Name and Titles 1. Jesus of Nazareth a. Terminology

Personality Cult

(1,350 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Wermke, Michael
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term personality cult probably became popular in February of 1956, when Nikita Khrushchev’s famous “secret speech” at the 20th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union admitted numerous excesses during the Stalin period and ascribed them to the “cult of personality” (Russ. kult lichn…

Philaret

(225 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael

Verdienst

(3,700 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Avemarie, Friedrich | Heiligenthal, Roman | Huxel, Kirsten | Sattler, Dorothea
[English Version] I. ReligionsgeschichtlichIn der eur. christl. Theol. wurde die Lehre vom V. (lat. meritum) zu einem kontroverstheol. Thema, an dem man (zumindest auf prot. Seite) glaubte, den grundlegenden Unterschied zw. Katholizismus und Luthertum bes. deutlich festmachen zu können (s.u. IV.). Die religionswiss. Diskussion hat gezeigt, daß die Verwendung eines derart theol. aufgeladenen Begriffes als analytische Kategorie des Religionsvergleiches auf kaum zu lösende Probleme stößt. Von daher w…

Pfingstbewegung/Pfingstkirchen

(4,763 words)

Author(s): Frenschkowski, Marco | Robins, Roger G. | Gerloff, Roswith | Bergunder, Michael
[English Version] I. Kirchengeschichtlich 1. In der von Ch.F. Parham geleiteten Bethel Bible Scho…

Ringeltaube

(75 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael
[English Version] Ringeltaube, Wilhelm Tobias (1770 Scheidelwitz [Szydlowice], Polen – 1816 verschollen), Missionar der London Missionary Society (LMS) in Südindien. Von 1806 bis 1816 wirkte R. hauptsächlich in Mayiladi im äußersten Süden Travancores (heute Kanniyakumari Dt.), zeitweilig wie ein Saṃnyāsin lebend, um die dortige, von dem indischen Christen Vedamanickam initiierte Missionstätigkeit unter Nadars (Shanars) im Dienste der LMS zu unterstützen.…

Spiritismus

(474 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael
[English Version] . S. bez. eine Bewegung, deren Anhänger von einem möglichen und empirisch nachweisbaren Kontakt mit den Toten in der Geisterwelt ausgehen und die ihren Höhepunkt in der 2. Hälfte des 19.Jh. und am Beginn des 20.Jh. erreichte. Die Wurzeln des S. liegen im weiteren Umfeld des Mesmerismus (F.A. Mesmer, J. Kerner), insbes. in der mesmeristischen Versuchspraxis, die »Somnambulen« paranormale Fähigkeiten (wie z.B. Hellsehen, automatisches Schreiben) zuschrieb. Der S. gründet auf zwei parallelen Entwicklungen. In den USA war es der Mesmerist Andrew Jackson …
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