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Kalmuk

(1,082 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A. | Wheeler, G.E.
, the Turkish name for a Mongol people, the Oyrat, who in the time of Čingiz-K̲h̲ān [ q.v.] inhabited the forests to the west of Lake Baykal. The name is derived (probably only by popular etymology) from the verb ḳalmak ,, “to remain” and distinguishes the Oyrat, who “remained” pagans, from the Dungans (the Chinese-speaking Muslims), who had “returned” (the verb dönmek ), according to the well-known Muslim idea, to Islam. A group of the Oyrat had accompanied Hülegü to the west and played a certain rôle in Īl-K̲h̲ānid Persia. The peopl…

Hūlāgū

(721 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
( Hülegü or rather Hüleʾü , the intervocalic g being purely graphie), the Mongol conqueror and founder of the dynasty of the II-K̲h̲āns [ q.v.] of Persia, born ca. 1217, was the grandson of Čingiz-K̲h̲ān [ q.v.] by the latter’s youngest son Toluy [ q.v.]. Sent by his brother the Great K̲h̲ān Möngke at the head of an army against the Ismāʿīlīs and the Caliph, he left Mongolia in the autumn of 1253, proceeding at a leisurely pace along a carefully prepared route, the roads having been specially cleared and levelled and bridges built across …

G̲h̲āzān

(696 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, Maḥmūd , Ilk̲h̲an [ q.v.] from 694/1295 until 713/1304, was born on 20 Rabiʿ I 670/5 November 1271, being the eldest son of Arg̲h̲ūn [ q.v.], then only in his thirteenth year. Upon his father’s accession G̲h̲āzān was appointed governor of Ḵh̲urāsān, Māzandarān and Ray, which provinces he continued to administer during the reign of Gayk̲h̲ātū [ q.v.]. He had been brought up as a Buddhist and, whilst governor, had ordered the construction of Buddhist temples in Ḵh̲abūshān (Ḳūčān); but shortly before his accession, during the war with Bāydū [ q.v.], he had been persuaded by his general…

Berke

(1,301 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, a Mongol prince and ruler of the Golden Horde, grandson of Čingiz-Ḵh̲an and third son of Ḏj̲oči. Little is known of his early career. He took no part in the wars in Russia and Eastern Europe in the years 634-639/1237-1242 but was more frequently in Mongolia than Batu, whom he represented at the enthronement of Güyük (644/1246) and that of Möngke (649/1251). His yurt of appanage was originally situated, according to Rubruck, in the direction of Darband but by 653/1255 had on Batu’s orders been removed to the east of the Volga in order …

Burāḳ (or, more correctly, Baraḳ) Ḥād̲j̲ib

(547 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, the first of the Ḳutlug̲h̲ Ḵh̲āns of Kirmān. By origin a Ḳara-Ḵh̲itayan he was, according to Ḏj̲uwaynī, brought to Sulṭān Muḥammad Ḵh̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh after the defeat of the Ḳara-Ḵh̲itay on the Talas in 1210 and taken into his service, in which he rose to the rank of ḥād̲j̲ib or Chamberlain. According to Nasawī he had held this same office at the court of the Gür-Ḵh̲an or ruler of the Ḳara-Ḵh̲itay. Being sent on an embassy to Sulṭān Muḥammad he was forcibly detained by the latter until the final collapse of the Ḳara-Ḵh̲…

Gurgān

(627 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R. | Boyle, J.A.
, Old Persian vrkāna , Arabic d̲j̲urd̲j̲ān , the ancient Hyrcania, at the South-east corner of the Caspian Sea. The province, which was practically equivalent to the modern Persian province of Astarābād̲h̲ [ q.v.] (now part of Ustān II) forms both in physical features and climate a connecting link between sub-tropical Māzandarān with its damp heat and the steppes of Dihistān in the north. The rivers Atrak [ q.v.] and Gurgān, to which the country owes its fertility and prosperity, are not an unmixed blessing on account ¶ of their inundations and the danger of fever which results. Gurgān playe…

Čag̲h̲atay K̲h̲ānate

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
The Central Asian Ḵh̲ānate to which Čag̲h̲atay gave his name was really not founded till some decades after the Mongol prince’s death. Čag̲h̲atay was succeeded by his grandson Ḳara-Hülegü, the son of Mö’etüken who fell at Bāmiyān. Ḳara-Hülegü had been designated as Čag̲h̲atay’s heir both by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān himself and by Ögedey; he was however deposed by the Great Ḵh̲ān Güyük (1241-1248) in favour of Yesü-Möngke, the fifth son of Čag̲h̲atay, with whom Güyük was on terms of personal friendship. In 1…

K̲h̲āḳān

(139 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A.
a title (originally ḳag̲h̲an or k̲h̲ag̲h̲an ) borrowed by the Turks from the Juan-juan and meaning “[supreme] ruler”. It was applied by the heathen Turks themselves and the mediaeval Muslim geographers and historians not only to the heads of the various Turkish confederations but also to other non-Muslim rulers such as the Emperor of China. In the form ḳāʾan it was borne by the successors of Čingiz-K̲h̲ān [ q.v.], the Mongol Great K̲h̲āns in Ḳaraḳorum and Peking. Adopted by the Ottoman Sulṭāns, the title, first brought to Europe by the Avars in the 6th century A.D. (the kaganus

Batu

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
(in Arabic script bātū ), a Mongol prince, the conqueror of Russia and founder of the Golden Horde (1227-1255), born in the early years of the 13th century, the second son of D̲j̲oči [see d̲j̲ūčī ]. During Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān’s lifetime D̲j̲oči, as his eldest son, had received as his yurt or appanage the territory stretching from the regions of Ḳayalïḳ and Ḵh̲wārazm to Saḳsïn and Bulg̲h̲ār on the Volga “and as far in that direction as the hoof of Tartar horse had penetrated”. The eastern part of this vast area, i.e., Western Siberia, the present-day Kazak̲h̲stān and the lower basin of the …

K̲h̲ān

(236 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A.
, a Turkish title ( k̲h̲an or ḳan ) first used by the Tʿu-chüeh apparently as a synonym of ḳag̲h̲an , the later k̲h̲āḳān [ q.v.], with which its relationship is obscure; it was afterwards normally applied to subordinate rulers. The title is first recorded in Muslim lands on the coins of the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids or Ilek K̲h̲āns [ q.v.]. Under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs and K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs, k̲h̲ān was the highest title of the nobility taking precedence over malik and amīr . It was applied by the Mongols to the head of an ulus [ q.v.], ḳāʾan , i.e. k̲h̲āḳān, being reserved for the Great K̲h̲ān in Ḳaraḳorum o…

Ḳaraḳorum

(506 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, a town in the aymak of Övör K̲h̲angay in Central Mongolia, now in ruins; in the 7th/13th century it was for a short time the capital of the Mongol World Empire. The fullest accounts of the town are given by the European traveller William of Rubruck and the Persian historian D̲j̲uwaynī [ q.v.]. The ruins were first discovered in 1889 by N. M. Yadrentsey; they were visited and described by the members of the Russian expedition of 1891 led by Radlov; and in 1948-49 an expedition jointly organized by the Soviet Union and the Mongolian People’s Repub…

Burāḳ (or rather Baraḳ) K̲h̲ān

(716 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, a ruler of the Čag̲h̲atay Ḵh̲ānate. A grandson of Mö’etüken, who fell before Bāmiyān, his father, Yesün-To’a, had been banished to China for his part in the conspiracy against the Great Ḵh̲an Möngke. Burāḳ himself began his career at the court of Möngke’s successor, Ḳubilay Ḵh̲an (1260-94). When in March 1266 Mubārak-S̲h̲āh, the son of Ḳara-Hülegü, was elected to the Čag̲h̲atay Ḵh̲ānate, Ḳubilay dispatched Burāḳ to Mā warāʾ al-Nahr with a yarlīg̲h̲ or rescript appointing him co-regent with his cousin. Burāḳ at first concealed the yarlīg̲h̲ and then, having gained the support of…

K̲h̲ān-Zāda Bēgum

(138 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A.
, the title (“Princess”) of Sevin Beg, a grand-daughter of Özbeg, the ruler of the Golden Horde, and the wife successively of Tīmūr’s eldest son D̲j̲ahāngīr and his third son Mīrāns̲h̲āh. After Mīrāns̲h̲āh’s outbreak of madness at Tabrīz she came in person to Samarḳand to report his behaviour to Tīmūr. Dawlats̲h̲āh describes the interview with their father-in-law “with colourful details which are not in the other sources and can hardly be true”. (J.A. Boyle) Bibliography Ibn ʿArabs̲h̲āh, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-maḳdūr fī nawāʾib Tīmūr, Cairo 1305/1887-8 S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī, Ẓafar-nāma…

Kansu

(2,033 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A. | Saguchi, T.
, a province in the north-west of China, bounded in the south and east by the provinces of Szechwan and Shensi and in the west and north by the province of Chinghhai and the Sinkiang Uighur and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions. The province, first formed under the Great Khan Ḳūbīlāy in 1282 A.D., received its name from the towns in the extreme north-west, Kanchou (Changyeh) and ¶ Suchou (Kiuchuan); both towns are already mentioned in the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam and Gardīzī, the former in the form K̲h̲āmd̲j̲ū (in the Mongol period Kamd̲j̲ū) and the latter as Suk̲h̲d̲j̲ū or Sūkd̲j̲ū. 1. To the end of t…

Gand̲j̲a

(976 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
Arab. d̲j̲anza , the former Elizavetpol , now Kirovabad , the second largest town in the Azerbaijan S.S.R. ¶ The town was first founded under Arab rule, in 245/859 according to the Ta’rīk̲h̲ Bāb al-abwāb (V. Minorsky,A History of Sharvān and Darband , Cambridge 1958, 25 and 57). It is not mentioned by the oldest Arabic geographers like Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih and Yaʿḳūbī; it seems to have taken its name from the pre-Muslim capital of Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān (now the ruins of Tak̲h̲t-i-Sulaymān). Iṣṭak̲h̲rī. 187 and 193, mentions Gand̲j̲a only as a small town on the road from Bard̲h̲aʿa [ q.v.] to Tif…

Balāsāg̲h̲ūn

(642 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
or balāsaḳūn , a town in the valley of the Ču, in what is now Kirg̲h̲izia. The medieval geographers give only vague indications as to its position. Barthold, Otčet o poyezdke v Sredniya Aziyu , St. Petersburg 1897, 39, suggests its identity with Aḳ-Pes̲h̲in in the region of Frunze. A. N. Bernshtam, Čuyskaya dolina in Materialī i issledovaniya arkheologii S.S.S.R ., No 14 (1950), 47-55, agrees with Barthold and gives a description of the site. The town was a Soghdian foundation and in Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī’s time, i.e., in the second half of the 11th century, the Soghdian language still …

D̲j̲uwaynī

(1,552 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAṭā-Malik b. Muḥammad (623/1226-681/1283), a Persian governor and historian, author of the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i d̲j̲ahāngus̲h̲āy , a work which is almost our only source on the details of his life. His family belonged to Āzādwār, then the chief town of Ḏj̲uwavn ([ q.v.], No. 2). According to Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā ( al-Fak̲h̲rī , ed. Ahlwardt, 209) they claimed descent from Faḍl b. Rabīʿ, the vizier of Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn’s great-grandfather, Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, had waited on the K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āh Tekis̲h̲ [ q.v.] when in 588/1192 he passed through Āzādwār…

K̲h̲ātūn

(95 words)

Author(s): Boyle, J.A.
, a title of Sog̲h̲dian origin borne by the wives and female relations of the Tʿu-chüeh and subsequent Turkish rulers. It was employed by the Sald̲j̲uks and K̲h̲wārazm-S̲h̲āhs and even by the various Čingizid dynasties. It was displaced in Central Asia in the Tīmūrid period by begüm , which passed into India and is still used in Pakistan as the title of a lady of rank. (J.A. Boyle) Bibliography G. Doerfer: Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen, iii, 132-41 (No. 1159) Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 602-3.

Ḳubilay

(362 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, Mongol Great K̲h̲ān (1260-94), the brother and successor of Möngke [ q.v.], was born in 1215. In 1251 Möngke entrusted him with the administration of Northern China, and he took part in the subsequent war which his brother launched against the Sung rulers of the South. The conquest of the Sung was finally completed only during his own reign (1279), when the whole of China was again united under one ruler for the first time since the tenth century. Already in 1260 he had transferred the capital of the Empire from Ḳaraḳorum [ q.v.] to Peking, in Mongol K̲h̲ān-Bali̊g̲h̲ [ q.v.], i.e. “K̲h̲ān’s T…

Čag̲h̲atay K̲h̲ān

(875 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, founder of the Čag̲h̲atay Ḵh̲anate [ q.v.], the second son of Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān and his chief wife Börte Fud̲j̲in. Already in his father’s lifetime he was regarded as the greatest authority on the Yasa (the tribal laws of the Mongols as codified by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān). Like his brothers he took part in his father’s campaigns against China (1211-1216) and against the kingdom of the Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh (1219-1224). Urgānd̲j̲, the latter’s capital, was besieged by the three princes Ḏj̲oči, Čag̲h̲atay and Ögedey and taken in Ṣafar 618/27th March-24th April 1221. In the sam…
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