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Ricci, Matteo

(616 words)

Author(s): Collani, Claudia v.
[German Version] (in Chinese, Li Madou; Oct 6, 1552, Macerata, March of Ancona – May 11, 1610, Peking), SJ (from 1571), pioneer of the modern China mission (China: V, 3; Catholicism: IV, 4) and the method of accommodation (Colonialism and mission: I, 2.a) in China. After studying philosophy and mathematics at the Collegio Romano (under Christopher Clavius SJ) Ricci was sent to China in 1577. There he studied theology in Goa in 1578, and from 1582 in Macao. China was closed to all foreigners. On the orders of the Jesuit visitor A. Valignano…

Schall von Bell, Johann Adam

(424 words)

Author(s): Collani, Claudia v.
[German Version] (Chinese Tāng Ruòwàng; May 1, 1592, Cologne – Aug 15, 1666, Beijing), Jesuit (since 1608), the most important German Catholic missionary to China (German missions: II, 2; China: V, 3; Catholicism: IV, 4), astronomer, first director of the imperial astronomical and mathematical tribunals in Beijing, made a Mandarin of the first class in 1658. After studying in Rome, Schall was sent to China as a missionary in 1618 on account of his enormous scientific knowledge, to promote the ¶ Christian mission with the help of modern European science (the method of accommodation). He arrived in Macau in 1619 and was summoned to Beijing in 1630 to work with other Jesuits (II) and Chinese scholars on producing a reformed Chinese calendar, which was important for legitimating the emperor. With Schall’s leadership and major contributions, a Chinese encyclopedia of mathematics and astronomy was produced and the calendar was calculated successfully. Many Chinese scholars and ladies-in-waiting became Christians, but not the emperor. Schall’s contributions to China’s defense (cannon design, fortification) failed: the Manchu conquered China in 1644. Thanks to astronomy, the mission survived, and Schall became the first European appointed director of the astronomical tribunal, an office occupied by Jesuits until…

Schall von Bell

(376 words)

Author(s): Collani, Claudia v.
[English Version] Schall von Bell, Johann Adam (chinesisch Tang Ruowang; 1.5.1592 Köln – 15.8.1666 Peking), SJ (seit 1608), bedeutendster dt. kath. Chinamissionar (…


(585 words)

Author(s): Collani, Claudia v.
[English Version] Ricci, Matteo (chinesisch Li Madou; 6.10.1552 Macerata, Mark Ancona – 11.5.1610 Peking), SJ (seit 1571), Pionier der modernen Chinamission (China: V., 3., Katholizismus: IV., 4.) und der Akkommodationsmethode (Akkommodation, Kolonialismus …

Rites Controversy

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Collani, Claudia v. | Hock, Klaus
[German Version] I. History 1. The rites controversy is understood to refer to the controversy over whether Christians should be allowed to take part in particular state-ordered ceremonies in eastern Asia (China, India [see 2 below], and Japan; Asia : IV, 3) in the early modern period. This is linked to the question of theological terminology and church decrees. It was a question of how far the message of Christianity could be adapted to indigenous culture (Christianity, Expansion of : IV) and incult…


(1,789 words)

Author(s): Collani, Claudia v. | Hock, Klaus
[English Version] I. Historisch 1. Unter R. versteht man die Auseinandersetzung, ob die Teilnahme an bestimmten staatl. angeordneten Zeremonien im Ostasien der frühen Neuzeit (China, Indien [s.u. 2.] und Japan; Asien: IV.,3.) für Christen erlaubt sein sollte, verbunden mit der Frage der theol. Terminologie und der Kirchengebote. Es ging um den Grad der Anpassung und Inkulturation der Botschaft des Christentums an die einheimische Kultur (Christentum, Ausbreitungsgeschichte: IV.), ohne daß es zu Syn…